ACIAR Proceedings, No. A. mearnsii is a highly invasive species, and listed as one of the World’s 100 Worst Invaders (ISSG, 2007). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. ], 101:11-14. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2014_101_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf, Brown AG, Ho CK, 1997. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10:13-29; 5 pp. Alien invasions in indigenous evergreen forest. ; 4 ref, Coppens HA, Santana MAE, Pastore FJ, 1980. of ref.]. IUFRO Acacia 2014 Conference, Hue, Vietnam, 18-21 March 2014. NeoBiota, No.29:53-62. http://neobiota.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=7230, Logan AF, 1987. used to be covered with invasive trees, mostly black wattle and blue gum. (Wiersum, 1991; Orwa et al., 2009). In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Function of the polyad in reproduction of Acacia. Biological Invasions, 18(2):445-456. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-015-1017-x, Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 11-14. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2014_101_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf. Acacia decurrens (Early Black Wattle) - An introduced species native to NSW is considered an environmental weed in Victoria. by Brown AG, Ho CK]. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 27-30 March 1995. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. In: World Agroforestry Centre, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, PIER, 2008. Acacia mearnsii (black wattle); sapling. Impact of the flower-galling midge, Liu Min, Yang MingYu, Song Ding, Zhang ZhiMing, Ou XiaoKun, 2016. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 34(3):276-299. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjsf20, Seburanga JL, 2016. In South Africa, several traits of major economic importance - tannin content, incidence of gummosis, stem form and survival rates - were significantly improved in two generations of breeding, but vigour or bark thickness were not (Li, 1997). In: Vol. [English title not available]. Wiersum KF, 1991. In its native range, A. mearnsii forms part of the understorey in eucalypt woodland (Weber, 2003). Smith (1998) states that mammals and granivorous birds cannot be discounted, Cronk and Fuller (1995) cite mammals but Dean et al. 15, 342 pp. Willd. It has been listed as a category 2 invader in South Africa, a noxious environmental weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds, and a noxious weed in USA (Randall, 2012). Development of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) Online Database. Bark quality of Acacia mearnsii provenances from different geographic origins growing in South China. Tropical Forestry Papers, Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, No. Open-grown specimens are freely-branched from near ground level with a crooked main stem. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China, 2-5 November 1992, 140-148; 21 ref, Searle SD, Owen JV, Williams ER, Raymond CA, 1991. Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii), introduced into South Africa from Australia in the mid-19 th century, has been widely planted in the country and forms the basis of a small but significant industry. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4341E/Y4341EO4.htm, Oelofse M, Birch-Thomsen T, Magid J, Neergaard Ade, Deventer Rvan, Bruun S, Hill T, 2016. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 3. Australian Forestry, 53(3):148-153; 7 ref, Zheng GuangCheng, Lin YunLu, Yazaki Y, 1991. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 71(2):101-109; 23 ref, Boden DI, 1984. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). ICFR Bulletin Series, No. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China, 2-5 November 1992. In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. 10-95, 13 pp. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp. 83-88. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Invasive Acacia mearnsii De Wilde in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China: a new biogeographic distribution that threatens airport safety. mollis Lindl. The Black and Silver wattle rank first and third in water use by invading species, totalling 25% of the total amount, and are estimated to reduce mean annual runoff by 7% (Le Maitre et al., 2000). They report that it is changing the structure of local vegetation, increasing the probability of birds strikes at the airport. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 136-150, Yazaki Y, Zheng GC, Searle SD, 1990. 35, 209-214; 3 ref, Gao CB, Li JY, Williams ER, 1991. (Red de Informacion sobre especies invasoras)., Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN). The World Conservation Union has included this species in their list of 100 of the world's worst invasive species, one of only 32 terrestrial species so singled out. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. It is not common on poorly-drained or very infertile sites. NeoBiota. Allelopathic effect of, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. by Brown AG, Ho CK]. BLACK WATTLE (ACACIA MEARNSII) Hawaii Pacific Weed Risk Assessment: 15 High Risk Regulatory Status: Hawaii Noxious Weed List Prevention and Control Category: N/A Description Fast growing tree. Dye and Tannin-producing plants, [ed. Impact of the flower-galling midge, Dasineura rubiformis Kolesik, on the growth of its host plant, Acacia mearnsii De Wild, in South Africa. Paper to 1996 Australian forest growers conference, 9-12 September, Mount Gambier, South Australia, Searle SD, 1991. 63:24-29, Yazaki Y, Collins PJ, 1997. It has been recorded on basalt, dolerite, granite and sandstone but is common on soils derived from metamorphic shales and slates. The species is also considered to be the major invader in the mist belt of the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe. Dye and tannin-producing plants. In: Turnbull JW ed. September 2007. Invasive woody plants. plantations in China. Acacia mearnsii. Uses of wattle extracts: Anticorrosion of metals. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Impact of woody aliens on ecosystem properties. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 9(3):391-399. http://krepublishers.com/02-Journals/S-EM/EM-09-0-000-15-Web/S-EM-09-3-15-Abst-PDF/S-EM-09-3-391-15-384-Maroyi-A-S/S-EM-09-3-391-15-384-Maroyi-A-S-Tx[13].pdf, Maslin BR, 1995. A breeding strategy to make optimum use of this material and produce seed for plantations is described by Raymond (1987; 1997).Physiology and PhenologyA. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. South African Forestry Journal, No. At 2 to 4.5 years after planting, Australian mainland provenances, especially those from New South Wales and Victoria, were superior to Tasmanian sources and the best of the Australian material was far better than the local landraces (Gao and Li, 1991; Gao et al., 1991). University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, Smith CW, 1998. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. In China, Yan et al. ; Kruger, F.J.; Ferrar, A.A.] Cape Town, South Africa; Oxford University Press, 275-283, Geldenhuys CJ, Roux PJ le, Cooper KH, 1986. Acacia mearnsii (black wattle); habit. Principal historic growing areas include over 200,000 ha of plantations in Brazil (Higa and Resende, 1994) and 160,000 ha in South Africa (Boucher, 1980) down from 325,000 during peak tannin production in the 1960s (Wiersum, 1991). Comments: Black Wattle has been introduced to many different parts of the world beside its native Australia. In: Black Wattle and its Utilisation, [ed. Factors limiting seed production in Acacia mearnsii. 48, 203-211, Li JY, 1997. ), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Invasive species which are threatening the native forest species are often in news. BioNET-EAFRINET (2015) reports it as invasive in parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. ], [ed. 831-838. Wood and non-wood uses of temperate Australian acacias. Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. In more tropical areas, A. mearnsii is best grown in the highlands at 1500-2500 m with a mean annual rainfall of 900-1600 mm and mean annual temperature 12-18°C (Webb et al., 1980). Guidelines for the fertilization of pine, eucalypt and wattle plantations in the summer rainfall areas of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 157-170, Doran JC, Gunn BV, 1987. Invasive, Mukwada G, Chingombe W, Taru P, 2016. 2, i + 19 pp. 80 pp. (1986) list water alone and other sources exclude birds. PROTA4U web database. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Genetic variation in frost tolerance of Acacia mearnsii. Cape Town, South Africa: Department of Nature and Environmental Conservation, 48-51, Boudiaf I, Baudoin E, Sanguin H, Beddiar A, Thioulouse J, Galiana A, Prin Y, Roux Cle, Lebrun M, Duponnois R, 2013. Annals of Botany, 50(5):721-727; 31 ref, Kessy BS, 1987. World Agroforestry Centre. Growing and managing Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) in Kenya. A. mearnsii is often found in closed forest as a result of having previously established in gaps when the forest was more open, as it is not able to establish in closed forests (Geldenhuys et al., 1986). 2011, http://fred.csir.co.za/plants/global/continen/africa/safrica/bigpic/howmuchw, http://www.arc.agric.za/institutes/ppri/main/divisions/weedsdiv/fynboselectronic/acamea.htm, http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html, http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm. Invasive Acacia mearnsii De Wilde in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China: a new biogeographic distribution that threatens airport safety. At the highest altitudes it occurs in the cool sub-humid and humid zones. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2004. Boudiaf I, Baudoin E, Sanguin H, Beddiar A, Thioulouse J, Galiana A, Prin Y, Roux Cle, Lebrun M, Duponnois R, 2013. http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsd/iabin/, ILDIS, 2002. International Legume Database and Information Service. In South Africa, major economic losses have been calculated due to reduction in water runoff, with ISSG (2007) quoting an estimated annual economic loss of $US 2.8 million from both commercial plantations and invasive stands of A. mearnsii due to reduced surface runoff and decrease water ability. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Water, birds and mammals may disperse seeds (Weber, 2003), but there seems to be some discrepancy about the exact identity of biotic dispersal agents. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 83-88, I3N-Brasil, 2015. Different mitigation scenarios were ranked according to their cost-benefit ratio. As A. mearnsii is an important commercial plant as well as being extremely invasive, it is important that any control methods limit spread without affecting growth of cultivated trees. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. 78-82. (1996).A. ACIAR Proceedings, No. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Pods more or less straight but often constricted between the seeds, dark brown to blackish when ripe, finely hairy, 5-15 ×0.4-0.8 cm. A cost-benefit analysis in South Africa by de Wit et al. Chandra SK, 2012. In a study of a population in New South Wales, Australia, Grant et al. Public Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst. http://www.europe-aliens.org/. mearnsii is a light-demanding species with rapid early stem growth. 52-56. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds. Coastal localities have no heavy frosts, inland there are from 1-20 per annum and at some higher altitudes up to 80 are recorded, with a record low of -12°C. A. mearnsii is recorded as being highly competitive and eventually reducing the presence of native and/or indigenous vegetation, especially in South Africa (De Wit, 2001; ISSG, 2007). Pretoria, South Africa: South African Forest Research Institute. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. A key to useful Australian acacias for the seasonally dry tropics. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. ACIAR Proceedings No 16:57-63, Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. The use of, Intercropping is sometimes practised in Kenya (, The moderately dense wood splits easily, burns well and makes excellent fuelwood and charcoal. In: Brown AG, ed. Impson FAC, Post JA, Hoffmann JH, 2013. Acacia mearnsii (black wattle); dense stand of young trees. ], [ed. (2012) report that A. mearnsii in riparian ecotones in South Africa is more drought tolerant than native woody tree species, suggesting that it will persist in future drier conditions.AssociationsA. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. The exotic legume tree species, Acacia mearnsii, alters microbial soil functionalities and the early development of a native tree species, Quercus suber, in North Africa. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 18-27, Roux J, Kemp GHJ, Wingfield MJ, 1995. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. Factors determining the occurrence of the agroforestry system with Acacia mearnsii in central Java. The species was given a medium risk assessment score, meaning that monitoring and management should be conducted. Published by The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) a specialist © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. (2016) describe the rapid spread of A. mearnsii across Kunming Changshui Airport in China. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. CABI, Undated. Waki K, 1984. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. mearnsii has a hermaphroditic breeding system (Cronk and Fuller, 1995) and is regarded as an outcrossing species with partial self-compatibility. Tasmanian and mainland provenances diverged and, in turn, were subdivided into low elevation and higher elevation groups based on morphological features of young seedlings. (2016) examine park-community conflicts in South Africa arising from initiatives to limit community access to park resources due to the need to prevent invasion of the park by A. mearnsii. 35: 215-218, Geldenhuys CJ, 1986. 48, 165-170, Gupta VK, Kukreti MC, 1983. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Genetics Chan JM, Day P, Feely J, Thompson R, Little KM, Norris CH, 2015. The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Online Database. In: Forestry Handbook. Genetical studies in Acacias. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. A highly invasive species, A Southern African Forestry Journal, No. At Kunming Changshui Airport, mechanical control is recommended (Liu et al., 2016).Chemical control Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 160-165, Ho CK, Fang YL, 1997. The tree is regarded as naturalized in Portugal (Le Floc'h, 1991). In: Research Note - Kenya Forestry Research Institute, i + 19 pp. xix + 402 + 24 plates. South Africa's other bush war. Across the whole of South Africa, the estimated annual consumption of water by A. mearnsii is estimated to be in the order of 300 million m³ (Anon., 2000). Leaves 8-12 cm long, bipinnate dark-green with  8-21 pairs of pinnae, each with 15-70 pairs of leaflets, 1.5-4 ×0.5-0.8 mm, olive green; glands  irregularly spaced along the upper surface of the rachis and on the petiole. 180:15-21; 32 ref, Poggenpoel PV, 1978. 1995. http://www.ildis.org/, ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Variation in the growth of and responses to fertilizing black wattle with nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and lime over three rotations. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PIER, 2008. Information cited in PIER (2007) notes that A. mearnsii can invade and disrupt pasture land thus reducing carrying capacity and profitability of livestock ranching, and as with other invasive species, control incurs an economic cost. They are called invasive alien plants. (Acacia mearnsii De Wild). Forestry Compendium. Acacia mearnsii (black wattle); flowering habit. of ref, Li JiYuan, Gao ChuanBi, Zheng FangJi, Ren HuaDong, 1994. In low altitude coastal areas it grows with Eucalyptus saligna, E. bosistoana, E. muellerana, E. ovata, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. viminalis. Systematics and phytogeography of Australian species of Acacia: an overview. In: Turnbull JW ed. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html, BioNET-EAFRINET, 2015. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 78-82, Stubbings JA, Schonau APG, 1982. Acacias of south eastern Australia. Plant Invaders, Beautiful but Dangerous. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Humlebaek, Denmark: Danida Forest Seed Centre. Proceedings of the National Synthesis Symposium on the ecology of biological invasions [edited by Macdonald, I.A.W. Invasive plants (Invasive species potentially threatening livelihoods and the environment around the world): Species Invasive plants 997 927,072 Themes November 2004. Hairs of new growth is golden in color. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. Growth of Australian acacias in Tanzania. In: Turnbull JW ed. South African Forestry Journal, No. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 118-131, Tame T, 1992. Waiale Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Keahuaiwi Gulch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Is burning a standing population of invasive legumes a viable control method? European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. 125: 1-19; 58 ref, Searle S, 1996. The ecology and management of biological invasions in Southern Africa. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Gao C, 1997. It is a relatively short-lived species with a life-span of 10-20 years. In: Turnbull JW, ed. More recently a cecidomyiid midge, Dasineura rubiformis, which forms galls in the flowers and prevents pod development was released (Impson et al., 2008). mearnsii occurs in the understorey of tall open-forest or open-forest dominated by eucalypts in its native range. +C26, 1(5):247-254, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. ; [refs], du Toit B, 1995. A. mearnsii is widely cultivated as an exotic species in a number of countries throughout the world. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Human settlement in South Africa and archaelogical evidence for alien plants and animals. In tropical countries, this species is attacked by various insects including herbivores (Acanthopsyche junode), stem-borers (Platypus solidus) and caterpillars (Achaea lienardi). Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. In regions with more than 3000 mm of annual precipitation (i.e., Indonesia) most damage occurs from fungal attacks of Armillaria, Corticium, Fomes and Phytophtora spp. Since 1995, through the Working for Water programme, the trees have been removed step by step, starting at the top of the catchment. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Australian Tree Species Research in China. Breeding Acacia mearnsii in Southern Brazil [Rio Grande do Sul]. Factors determining the occurrence of the agroforestry system with Acacia mearnsii in central Java. In: Brown AG, ed. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. Stein PP, Tonietto L, 1997. Frost tolerance variation amongst 25 provenances of Acacia mearnsii. Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) Searle et al. Computerized climate mapping for planting site selection. Tabberabbera, Victoria, Australia. Acacia decurrens var. A. mearnsii is a vigorous, nitrogen fixing species that has precocious and prolific seed production, with a high density and accumulation of long-lived seeds in the soil, and a variety of potential dispersal mechanisms including water, mammals and possibly birds. by Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N]. Santalum freycinetianum var. In forest stands, the stem is usually straighter and may be dominant for up to three-quarters of the tree height. South African Journal of Botany, 87:118-121. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629913002470, ISSG, 2007. The Global Invasive Species Database contains invasive species information supplied by experts on biological invasion from around the world. Liu Min, Yang MingYu, Song Ding, Zhang ZhiMing, Ou XiaoKun, 2016. (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora)., Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. (2013) report that while this flower-galling midge reduces seed set to very low levels, it does not negatively affect growth of the tree and so will have no detrimental effect on the wattle forestry industry in South Africa. It has narrow leaves 150mm long which tend to droop. Since A. mearnsii resprouts from the roots, these should be removed (Weber, 2003), and girdling of the stem is also effective (PIER, 2007). In: Grey DC et al., eds. Booth T H, Yan H, 1991. 6 (2), 119-135. The average number of days over 32°C is 1-15 and this species is rarely found in areas where the temperature exceeds 38°C. The northern limit is west of Sydney (33º43'S), and a detailed description of the occurrence of A. mearnsii in Australia is found in Searle (1997). Raised glands occur at and between the junctions of pinnae pairs. Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) is rated as one of South Africa’s most prolific invasive weeds, having colonised almost every province within the country, where it dominates the landscape and has negative impacts on biodiversity, agriculture and water resources.
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