Palmyra (Empire Divided) Shock Cavalry Palmyrene Lanciarii The charge of a lancer sends enemies flying, often in more than one piece. The dating of the dam's construction was questioned by the archaeologist Denis Genequand who compared it to several Umayyad dams and suggested a date corresponding to the Umayyad period. [389], The strategoi were appointed by the council with the approval of Rome. [281] Its destruction by the Timurids in 1400 reduced it to a small village. With her hold on Egypt secured, she turned her attention to securing Asia Minor and Phoenicia. [108] The reliefs emphasized clothing, jewelry and a frontal representation of the person depicted,[108][109] characteristics which can be seen as a forerunner of Byzantine art. [411] Palmyrenes worshiped regional deities, including the greater Levantine gods Astarte, Baal-hamon, Baalshamin and Atargatis;[408] the Babylonian gods Nabu and Nergal,[408] and the Arab Azizos, Arsu, Šams and Al-lāt. [23] However, excavation supports the theory that the tell was originally located on the southern bank, and the wadi was diverted south of the tell to incorporate the temple into Palmyra's late first and early second century urban organization on the north bank. [235], Odaenathus formed an army of Palmyrenes and Syrian peasants against Shapur. [435] Taxation was an important source of revenue for the Palmyrene government. [425], In 274, following his victory over Palmyra, Aurelian dedicated a large temple of Sol Invictus in Rome;[426] most scholars consider Aurelian's Sol Invictus to be of Syrian origin,[427] either a continuation of emperor Elagabalus cult of Sol Invictus Elagabalus, or Malakbel of Palmyra. [243] In practice, Palmyra shifted from a provincial city to a de facto allied kingdom. [97] Palmyra had no large libraries or publishing facilities, and it lacked an intellectual movement characteristic of other Eastern cities such as Edessa or Antioch. This act greatly benefitted the Romans and served the strengthened ties between the two empires. [430] Some scholars criticize the notion of Malakbel's identification with Sol Invictus; according to Gaston Halsberghe, the cult of Malakbel was too local for it to become an imperial Roman god and Aurelian's restoration of Bel's temple and sacrifices dedicated to Malakbel were a sign of his attachment to the sun god in general and his respect to the many ways in which the deity was worshiped. [371] An imposition of direct provincial administration would have jeopardized Palmyra's ability to conduct its trading activities in the East, especially in Parthia. [465], Palmyra's first excavations were conducted in 1902 by Otto Puchstein and in 1917 by Theodor Wiegand. The historian Karel van der Toorn suggested that these ancestors took refuge in Judea after the destruction of their kingdom by Sargon II of Assyria in 721 BC, then had to leave Judea after Sennacherib devastated the land in 701 BC and headed to Palmyra. by the second century AD, Palmyrene goddess. [464] In 1901, the slab was gifted by the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II to the Russian Tsar and is now in the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. [449], If the Laghman II inscription in Afghanistan is referring to Palmyra, then the city's role in Central Asian overland trade was prominent as early as the third century BC. [39] Nearby are the Temple of Al-lāt and the Damascus Gate. [30] The Baths of Diocletian were on the left side of the colonnade. [349] On 21 May, some artifacts were transported from the Palmyra museum to Damascus for safekeeping; a number of Greco-Roman busts, jewelry, and other objects looted from the museum have been found on the international market. In 271 A.D., the Roman emperor Aurelian set out on a campaign to defeat Zenobia and reclaim the lands now under her rule. [318] Al-Ashraf Musa asked the Mamluk sultan Qutuz for pardon and was accepted as a vassal. He added: "In any case, by using both traditional methods and advanced technologies, it might be possible to restore 98% of the site". [note 17][205], The earliest Palmyrene text attesting a Roman presence in the city dates to 18 AD, when the Roman general Germanicus tried to develop a friendly relationship with Parthia; he sent the Palmyrene Alexandros to Mesene, a Parthian vassal kingdom. The crisis reached its zenith when Britain and France broke away to form the Gallic Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire conquered large parts of the Roman East. The Palmyrenes could have some success because the new Roman emperor Claudius II was occupied at the … [388] Soldiers were recruited from the city and its territories, spanning several thousand square kilometers from the outskirts of Homs to the Euphrates valley. [241][242] Palmyra itself remained officially part of the empire but Palmyrene inscriptions started to describe it as a "metrocolonia", indicating that the city's status was higher than normal Roman colonias. [52] The Palmyrenes seem to have disliked the Greeks, considered them foreigners, and restricted their settlement in the city. The Roman army was the largest and meanest fighting force in the ancient world. [27][28] It had a monumental arch in its eastern section,[29] and a tetrapylon stands in the center. The Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the 7th-century Rashidun Caliphate, after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic. [234], The monarchy continued most civic institutions,[375][377] but the duumviri and the council were no longer attested after 264; Odaenathus appointed a governor for the city. [86] After the conquest, the city became part of Homs Province. [83] A noticeable change is the lack of development of aristocratic residences, and no important public buildings were constructed by locals, indicating that the elite diminished following the campaign of Aurelian. [343][467] The stratigraphic sounding beneath the Temple of Bel was conducted in 1967 by Robert du Mesnil du Buisson,[87] who also discovered the Temple of Baal-hamon in the 1970s. Others say that she never made it to Rome at all, having either starved or poisoned herself on the journey back. [31] Nearby were residences,[32] the Temple of Baalshamin,[33] and the Byzantine churches, which include "Basilica IV", Palmyra's largest church. [173] King Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria passed through the area on his way to the Mediterranean at the beginning of the 18th century BC;[174] by then, Palmyra was the easternmost point of the kingdom of Qatna,[175] and it was attacked by the Suteans who paralyzed the traffic along the trade routes. [208], Palmyrene trade reached its acme during the second century,[215] aided by two factors; the first was a trade route built by Palmyrenes,[18] and protected by garrisons at major locations, including a garrison in Dura-Europos manned in 117 AD. She often drank with her generals, though at other times she refrained, and she drank, too, with the Persians and the Armenians, but only for the purpose of getting the better of them.”. [352] During ISIL's occupation of the site, Palmyra's theatre was used as a place of public executions of their opponents and captives; videos were released by ISIL showing the killing of Syrian prisoners in front of crowds at the theatre. Growing out of Syria, it soon encompassed Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and most of Asia Minor. Seland concluded that in the case of Palmyra, the people perceived themselves different from their neighbours and a real Palmyrene ethnicity existed. So Zenobia took control, ruling the Palmyrene Empire as regent. Using a small rebellion as a pretence, she invaded and occupied Egypt. Fol­low­ing the mur­der of Roman em­peror Alexan­der Severus in 235, gen­eral after gen­eral squab­bled over con­trol of the empire, the fron­tiers were ne­glected and sub­jected to fre­quent raids by Carpi­ans, Goths and Ala­manni, in ad­di­tion to out­right at­tacks from the ag­gres­sive Sas­sanids in the east. Conquer, rule and manipulate the Roman Empire with the ultimate goal of being declared as the "Imperator" of Rome. She also focused on establishing diplomatic ties and negotiating trade agreements with neighboring lands to further strengthen her empire. Later in 272, Aurelian defeated the Palmyrene army at Immae and Emesa. [305], By the twelfth century, the population moved into the courtyard of the Temple of Bel which was fortified;[298] Palmyra was then ruled by Toghtekin, the Burid atabeg of Damascus, who appointed his nephew governor. [451] In addition to the usual route some Palmyrene merchants used the Red Sea,[452] probably as a result of the Roman–Parthian Wars. [290] It was a key stop on the East-West trade route, with a large souq (market), built by the Umayyads,[290][291] who also commissioned part of the Temple of Bel as a mosque. [61] On the other hand, many scholars, such as Eivind Seland, contend that a distinctive Palmyrene ethnicity is apparent in the available contemporary evidence. [78][79] In time, the four tribes became highly civic and tribal lines blurred;[note 7][78] by the second century clan identity lost its importance, and it disappeared during the third century. [18] Palmyra's recruiting system is unknown; the city might have selected and equipped the troops and the strategoi led, trained and disciplined them. Palmyrene Legionary Cavalry. Palmyra served as a border between the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. With no other place to seek refuge, Zenobia fled back to Palmyra to regroup and shore up its defenses in preparation for another attack. [406][407] Palmyra had unique deities,[408] such as the god of justice and Efqa's guardian Yarhibol,[409][410] the sun god Malakbel,[411] and the moon god Aglibol. [142] Later Arabic traditions attribute the city's founding to Solomon's Jinn. 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