If the latter cannot be sold as, say, heavy fuel oil, these products will accumulate until refinery storage facilities are full. Executive Summary is excerpted from Volume I and available separately. A large number of products like petrol, diesel, lubricating oil, etc derive from petroleum. A refinery complex converts crude oil to useful products, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene, diesel fuel, gasoline, jet fuels, asphalt, and so forth. Hongzhang Chen, in Lignocellulose Biorefinery Engineering, 2015. Petroleum, the most important crude oil, consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds including paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons with small amounts of impurities including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and metals. For example, if pentane is heated to about 500°C, the covalent carbon–carbon bonds begin to break during the cracking process. 1-12; Chapter 3, pp. Therefore, bioremediation is considered as a viable alternative for this purpose. A Sample Crude Oil Refinery Business Plan Template 1. Heated crude oil is physically separated into various fractions, or straight-run cuts, differentiated by specific boiling-point ranges and classified, in order of decreasing volatility, as gases, light distillates, middle distillates, gas oils and residuum. With the gradual depletion of oil resources, the fossil economy is facing serious challenges. Solid phase of crude oil causes the major problem in transportation of crude oil. The means by which a refinery operates in terms of producing the relevant products depends not only on the nature of the petroleum feedstock but also on its configuration (i.e., the number of types of the processes that are employed to produce the desired product slate) and the refinery configuration is, therefore, influenced by the specific demands of a market. Hellenic Petroleum maintains its position as the dominant player in Greece's downstream oil sector, largely through its control of three of the country's four oil refineries and an established fuel retail network. A petroleum refining study starts with describing its feedstock, the crude oil and the range of products that are produced by the various processes. The recent price rise of crude oil over the last 2 years has affected the refining industry in several ways: there is an increased search for fuel products from non-fossil sources such as biodiesel and alcohols from vegetable sources; the development of better methods to process tar sand, coal gasification and synthesis of fuels by the Fischer–Tropsch technology; and the initiation of long-term plans to look for renewable energy sources. Mohamed A. Fahim, ... Amal Elkilani, in Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining, 2010. Biorefining offers the possibility of achieving sustainable production of bioenergy and biomaterials. On the other hand, high temperature corrosion occurs above 260 °C. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. When molecules in the liquid state have sufficient kinetic energy, they may escape from the surface and turn into a gas. Petroleum refining is the process of separating the many compounds present in crude petroleum. Petroleum refining involves the transformation of crude oil … U.S. Petroleum Refining - Meeting the Requirements for Cleaner Fuels and Refineries (1993) This six-volume report examines the factors affecting the outlook for U.S. refining during the period 1991-2010. To add to the problem, some of the corrosion agents might be interactive and increase the corrosivity of each agent. • Section 3 summarizes the data sources used in this study. Molecules with the most independence in individual motion typically achieve sufficient kinetic energy (velocity) to escape at lower temperatures. Petroleum refining, transportation, and storage are the main sources of soil contamination. These complex processes impact the environment in a different way despite the benefit of getting the important oil. Olefin alkylation and Fischer–Tropsch are other possible methods for producing clean fuels. Date modified: 2020-11-10. An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils. The growth in refining capacity is mainly driven by the demand of petro-products in a region and runs parallel with the growth of human and vehicle population. The effects of varying key system parameters (e.g., distillation column temperature and pressure) on system efficiencies at various conditions are highlighted. It occurs beneath the earth’s surface. Many such refineries also incorporate solvent extraction processes for manufacturing lubricants and petrochemical units with which to recover propylene, benzene, toluene, and xylenes for further processing into polymers. When the temperature reaches the boiling point, the average kinetic energy of the liquid particles is sufficient to overcome the forces of attraction that hold molecules in the liquid state. Waxy distillate and lower boiling lubricating oils are sometimes included in the middle distillates. In general, crude oil, once refined, yields three basic groupings of products that are produced when it is broken down into cuts or fractions (Table 2.1). Most transportation vehicles are powered by refined products such as gasoline, diesel, aviation turbine kerosene, and fuel oil. Modern conversion refineries may produce two-thirds of their output as unleaded gasoline, with the balance distributed between liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a small quantity of coke. Elham Ketabchi, ... Harvey Arellano-Garcia, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2018. Description of Petroleum Refinery Manages hydrocarbon molecules Organized & coordinated arrangement of manufacturing processes Provide physical & chemical change of crude oil Salable products with specifications & volumes as demanded by the marketplace Complete refinery will include: Conversion units Crude oil has little economic value and no practical applications in its original state. (2007), and Speight (2014). As the need for the lower boiling products developed, petroleum yielding the desired quantities of the lower boiling products became less available and refineries had to introduce conversion processes to produce greater quantities of lighter products from the higher boiling fractions. 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