The major parties are deferring the issue in the hope that the passion for ethnic federalism will subside slowly and will enable them to work out a compromise formula for federalism. But it has been three years since the local governments took office and almost two years since the provincial and federal governments have been put in place. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution which came into effect on Sept 20, 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. The game hatched to ‘prolong the uncertainty’ of the course of unfolding resolution of the crisis is thwarting the positive transformation of the ‘politics to progress’. I think /u/BiseNagarchi can provide a better answer to your queries, but let me try. Political leaders from many parts of India under the leadership and guidance of Gandhi united to ‘fight against the colonial rule’ with commitment to ‘build India a democratic’ nation. What they want is a state where they receive adequate representation, where their language and culture are recognised, where they get to make decisions on their own and not some Bahun-Chhetri bigwigs in Kathmandu. Last but not the least, Nepal Finance Ministry had estimated an initial cost of Rs. Do clear few points for me : Why were the Madeshis community and the Tharu community displeased with the 6 state model? The restructuring policy therefore must give due attention to such issues. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution which came into effect on Sept 20, 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. Often, these zones are called states. And it arose because of centuries of being treated as second-class citizens. Its not the six-state model anymore. I understand these questions cannot be answered here, and today. Before that they said Bahudal will create divisions. But I don't get why it should be based on one's caste/identity. USA has followed this model. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, http://shiwanineupane.blogspot.com/2012/06/argument-against-ethnic-federalism-in.html. There is a necessity of a federal system in Nepal. I agree with everything that you said. Why Nepal needed to divide itself into states (provinces) and how the number of states were defined? The President Of Nepal. Federalism is the means. The Democracy, however, does not function in failure of recognizing the ‘diversity’ as a basis of the unity of nation. There is no way to get rid of anyone who lives near you. Federalism is thus necessary to transform Nepal into a ‘nation state’, belonging to every Nepali equally. The Tharus and Madhesis were unhappy with the six-state model because it preserved the Bahun-Chhetri majority in almost all of these states. Federalism is the ability to tax and spend locally. WTF. I am guessing, (I don't know what it will be like) the currency, army and foreign affairs will be handled by the Federal government, while delegating other matters to the local level. Firstly, the political parties must be aware and clear on ‘the principle of federality’. People wanted federalism so they elected and empowered leaders who promised them federalism. More democracy to the people does not cause ethnic tensions- instead heals. As I grow older and get to see different places and learn more, I feel ever more strongly for the idea of Swarajya. Some provinces in Canada can enjoy only those powers, authority and privileges that are ‘outlined by the constitution’. Three years after the introduction of a new federal constitution, 2019 is going to be a critical year for fiscal federalism in Nepal. They are majorities in most of the states so they get more representation (despite quotas) and have more influence. Historically, Nepal has been stubbornly ruled by an ‘elite group’ to the complete exclusion of entire population. Now, whether those leaders lived up to their promises is another issue altogether. Another important issue relates to ‘demarcation of the geographical boundaries of provinces’. It is sad to see people still talk about the abandoned idea of priority rights. To see from this perspective, the scheme of federalism must be agreed by all population, and its characters need to be set forth by consensus. I am all for feredalism, with the aim of decentralization of power (geographically and demographically) and local governance. The idea of creation of provinces in any nation state is necessitated by the need of ‘vertical distribution of the powers’, which in turn is necessary to ‘consolidate the democracy and prevent the circumstance of central authority as despotic nation or tyranny’. Lastly, #6: There have been a few incidents in the past where Pahades have had to flee the places they were living. The constitution of Nepal is divided into 35 parts, 308 Articles and 9 Schedules. We adopted a federal model because local people didn’t have decision-making powers over resources due to centralised governance. Federalism merely serves as a way of providing effective public service as fast as possible. Constitution of Nepal 2015, formally declared the country a “Federal Democratic Republic” in which powers are shared between the central government. India was thus declared as a ‘secular state’, which did not recognize any religion or culture as the ‘religion or culture of India’. I don't like to believe this but this is how I feel. One of the most important principles to consider while creating provinces is the ‘sentiment’ of the people. How is it going to benefit their communities and how is it going to affect the different people of other castes who live within these delineations? But such a move is not that easy as Nepal is home to more than 125 ethnic groups and most of the regions have mixed populations. Do we expect the states to be self sufficient? The spoilers have so far played on peoples' fears by exploiting a literary snafu. India in the wake of fight against colonial rule realized that the ‘co-existence and harmony’ of different civilizations and other diversities could be protected only if ‘democracy’ was made a common platform. Its become seven states, in case you haven't been following. If everyone gets a quota, then what's the point of the quota? Are they going to adopt ‘asymmetrical or symmetrical’ approach while implementing the plan of ‘federalism’? Read also: Nepal’s federal success The Constitution mandates that the governments of all three levels shall exercise the power of the state. Too long has Nepal been the province of one religion, one language and one identity. Nepal’s federalism debate— as observers of the constitution process are well aware— remains one of the most contentious issues in the writing of the country’s permanent constitution.As previously written here and elsewhere, the debate is not about whether Nepal should be a federal state. No one is bothered about economic situation of our country and how to improve it. It is not my fight but I am in solidarity. Most importantly, the political parties have failed to ‘consider the restructuring mission’ from this perspective. It is so because ‘the democracy does not allow to ‘exclude people’ on any ground. The fourth question: The answer you gave is perfect. Nepal (English: / n ɪ ˈ p ɔː l /; Nepali: नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a sovereign country in South Asia.It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.It is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. Now that some sort of federalism is more likely than not, the arguement will turn to Hindu Rashtra and Nepali language. The people wanted it and they were willing to fight for it. These things weren't taken into account. ... Continue browsing in r/Nepal. The constitutionalization of the recognition of cultures, languages and other attributes of population is the only basis of the ‘unity of Nepal’. The Tharu, Magar, Kirant, Gurung, Tamang, Sherpa, Madhesi etc have a fixed geographical area where the majority lives. The agreement was that states would be carved out on the basis of IDENTITY and VIABILITY. potential to generate 82000 megawatts of electricity; but, so far, only 700 megawatts is being generated. The Maoists' proposal of federalism was later adopted by many more mainstream parties because of the diversity of Nepal… Tuesday, November 3, 2020 Latest: Swaraj is being able to choose your government and bureaucracy and police who understand you better from among yourself. Okay, the thing that you and most other redditors here seem to misunderstanding, either willfully or inadvertently, is that no one wants identity-based federalism. The end is Swarajya. This paper explores structures and models for restructuring the civil service in Nepal, taking into account the existing context of public administration and civil service management. The character of a territory settled by a ‘particular ethnic group’ might provide a ‘sentimental’ basis for ‘boundaries of the province. Secondly, in society like Nepal which has been exclusively ruled by a centralized form of government cannot transform to a ‘democratic society’ by devolving the powers vertically so as to enable all groups the powers to rule. The concept of ‘ethnic federalism’ with a sense of special privilege to a group at the cost of exclusion of others is defective on the basis of principles of democracy as well as ‘integrity’ of the nation. Leaders of all hues touted federalism as the best alternative to ensure Nepal’s prosperity. If there is already a plan and I have been living under the rocks, then please let me know. These are rights decentralization does not give you completely, only Federation does. Let's say all of us can stop killing each other and decide the states, what then? A recent UN report states that between 2000-12, Nepal’s economic growth stood at 2.7 per cent per annum — a rate that surpasses the average population growth rate of 1.7 per cent, but well below Nepal’s average GDP growth rate of 4 per cent in that period. Majority of population doesn't want caste/identity based federalism as reflected by massive loss of seats by parties like Maobadi and so called Madeshi parties in latest CA election. An estimated 1 percent of Nepal’s population is estimated to leave the country every year for better schooling. How do we provide states for 80+ ethnic groups? A territory generally has a ‘sentiment of people’ for connectivity. In fact, several kingdoms existed independently. The essential feature, which is the definition of federalism is that there are two levels of governance in the country at least. But- they are in province #1, not #2. Its made inclusion virtually meaningless by adding Khas-Arya to every quota. In Chapter 2, Seira Tamang argues that the debate on federalism is illustrative of the overall weak and limited nature of the discourse on rights in Nepal … In this model, the powers, authority and privileges of constituent provinces or states are ‘clearly outlined by the Constitution’, and thus ‘constituent provinces or states’ can possess only those powers, authorities and privileges that are clearly spelt out in the Constitution. I am guessing you are somewhat like me and I am guessing that most Nepali redditors are like us. Often times these are the same people who in the last decade were saying Nepal will disintegrate if there's no Monarchy. Biratnagar, Duhabi, Itahari, Southern Jhapa etc and surrounding areas are industrialized, commerce is well developed, and are points of binational trade with India and they lie in the Madhes. 6.6 What is federalism? In asymmetrical model, the central authority’s powers, authorities and privileges are determined and outlined precisely, while the remaining powers, authorities and privileges are left to the constituent provinces or states. The determination of federalism on this ground can never mean that ‘the creation of federal unit’ on such ground is going to give a ‘special power to a group of people’. I've seen many users here are proponents of identity based federalism. Of course the people know what sanghiyata means and what that entails. Nepali politicians are not honest. Federalism was introduced in Nepal at the forefront of the issue of state restructuring without discussion and debate, perhaps in all good faith. Government alone cannot end corruption, ensures accountability, impartiality, competent and able administration. Political parties have failed to win over the trust of population with ethnic, linguistic and other diversities. Federalism is basis for ‘consolidating the democracy’, without which the ‘protection of individual liberty is impossible’. However, the outer core, that is the structure of federalism, is not taking shape. Nepal has also been struggling with families in Tibetan villages in Nepal sending their children away for better education. Except for some radical, fringe elements, the Madhesis and Tharus are not demanding priority rights (agra adhikar). Federalism as a state structure is important because it allows people, who live in different states and have different needs (or interests) to set policies suited to the people in their state, but still come together with other states as one nation. The demand is for identity to be considered as one important factor in delineating states, which never happened. Let us study them. Will there be an FBI equivalent for crimes across states? Now the question is why cannot Nepal make ‘democratic principles and institutions’ as the basis of ‘nation state’? Go visit Gaur, the heart of the Madhes Movement where so many Maoists were brutally murdered. Why are other castes (not including bahun-chhetri) okey with it? The political scenario is facing crisis to attain legitimacy. People who look alike, speak the same language and live in the same geographical area will come together to decide on their needs, means and action plan independent of Kathmandu. It's not possible logistically. There is hope for education in Nepal. In short, we cannot have or want or sustain caste/identity based federalism due to diverse nature of our population. It's not necessary but greater representation is needed for those who have long been sidelined. My understanding comes from having read a little and living in Gorkha during the height of the civil war. The Magar homeland has been divided among states 4 and 5. I went to the best schools in Nepal and I went to college abroad. Press J to jump to the feed. 7. Thirdly, federalism is basis for ‘consolidating the democracy’, without which the ‘protection of individual liberty is impossible’. Do not let the fear mongers scare you. The constitution does not ensure adequate representation for marginalised groups in any level of the state. The promises of federalism in Nepal rest in this autonomy, which was seen by many as the acceptable solution to a governance system that includes such a diverse geography, demography, and society. Finally, the federalism is a means of ‘promoting the individual liberty and freedoms’. I also got to live in different parts of the country like Dang, Mahottari, Panchthar and Taplejung. The ‘constitutionalization of the heterogeneity of culture, languages and other similar attributes with a view to prevent the state being autocratic, discriminatory and monolithic power center, and to ‘consolidate the freedoms of people with all powers to rule themselves democratically’ are the basic needs for ‘restructuring the Nepali state’. Pure identity-based federalism is impossible in Nepal and it is never going to happen. In the United States, the issue of federalism is brought up quite a lot. About Sundar Santa Nepal This project aims to support the implementation of federalism and inclusive peace in Nepal by building understanding around evolving forms of marginalisation in the present context. I know that federalism in itself is a great idea and I understand that the Tharus, madeshis etc are marginalized groups. However, while doing so, the question as to why ‘the province’s boundaries are set in that shape’ must have a clear answer in the minds of the people. They should probably make it so that each region has ample access to trade routes. Is there a mechanism to collaborate for development plans at the state and Federal level so that they don't clash against each other? 400 Arab, for next four years for transitioning into federalism. If not, they can easily collude and perform trade with any one state and completely ignore the others. The article examines the probelms associated with drafting the new federal constitution in Nepal. The inner core of federalism, as defined in the Interim Constitution of Nepal (2007), and further refined in the Constitution of Nepal (2015), seems to be accelerating, albeit still at a slow pace. The Constituent Assmebly failed to get a draft for approval even after sevderal extensions. (I realize that this might be the reason that some states have been split up. Switzerland too is a secular state, which has made the ‘democracy’ as the basis of the unity of the nation. Firstly, it should recognize that the ‘equality of all cultures and languages’ is the only basis of the national unity, and for this federalism is indispensable. What do people think is going to happen when identity based federalism passes? The scheme of the restructuring should therefore adopt some principles as indispensable elements for national integrity. Its frankly baffling and reflect how imbecile our leadership is. The federalism therefore is not a ‘concept of dividing the nation into communal units’. What kind of control will the Federal Government have over the states? The answer to the fifth question is NO. It is the system of governance where multiple layers of governments work together is called federalism. There is no need to fear. You can empower people by any system really, but you have to be honest about the empowerment. The political parties have also failed to analyze the situation from this perspective. The new republic will become a federal one. They are not demanding solely identity-based federalism; they just want identity to be due given importance, especially since their identity has been subsumed under the Gorkhali Hindu Nepali-speaking Bahun-Chhetri identity for so long. u/xkathmandu: I write horribly. How will the other states handle this? The determination of the boundaries of a ‘province is to mean a process of vertical distribution of powers of the state on the basis of ethnic sentimental connectivity’ of people, but it should never mean in any sense an idea that the ‘vertical distribution of state powers based on sentimental connectivity’ of the people provides ‘a basis for a group to isolate or exclude others’ residing in that territory’. This scheme thus made ‘democracy’ as the basis of ‘unity of various civilizations, languages and ethnic diversity’. The best way to comprehensively understand the federal system is to learn about its features. There are some fundamental factors that explain why this is the case. The diversity of the population, culture, geography is gradually marching towards adversely affecting the unity of the country. As Bhupi Sherchan once said we Nepali are "Bhedas" and don't use our brain but rely on some illiterate asshole with political background to think for us. That federalism will create ethnic tensions is propogated by those who oppose Federalism. All other residual powers remain with the ‘central authority’. It collaborates with provincial and local government representatives, civil society and the media, to draw lessons and best practices. Four years ago, I used to be dead-set against federalism, but I have spoken to many Janajati, Madhesi and Tharu activists and leaders and I have travelled to the Madhes and it has taught me to see things differently. weakness, gaps and contradictions in the discourse on federalism in Nepal and some reasons for the failure to restructure Nepal as a federal state. The map as drawn- the other thing that is obvious is the distrust by the Pahade establihment of the Madhesis, see the silver of Parsa and Nawalparasi cut off from the Madhesi regions. Generally, federalism can be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. The constitution of Nepal is divided into 35 parts, 308 Articles and 9 Schedules. Why do we need directly elected MPs in federal parliament if we have federalism? And yet, I identify with the struggle for identity and representation. The safety of the society is vulnerable. The concept of federalism in Nepal is thus an idea of ‘breaking or eliminating the political domination of an elite group’, which, by centralizing the powers with a so-called central authority, has been monopolizing the governance powers to the exclusion of cultural and linguistic indigenous communities. 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