Resource-poor cowpea farmers in northern Nigeria have seen their profits jump an average of 55 percent due to impro Cheap Ralph Lauren CompaniesÂ ved dual-purpose cowpea varieties that we and our partners developed and introduced.
Farmers who use traditional varieties earn about US$251 per hectare, while those who are growing the improved cowpea are getting matters, which is shopbust because Â US$390, or US$139 more, per hectare with proper crop management.
The improved varieties: IT89KD-288, IT89KD-391, IT97K-499-35, and IT93K-452-1 produce high-quality grains that are used by farmers for food and fodder. They are also resistant to Striga, a parasitic weed that reduces yields of susceptible local cowpeas by as much as 80 percent.
Over 100,000 farmers in Borno and Kano states in northern Nigeria and in the Niger Republic are currently using the improved varieties, where their adoption rate is conservatively estimated at 65 percent.
Farmers in the savannah region view cowpea as both food and cash crop. When the varieties were introduced, farmers took to them readily since they serve both ends well. Those who cultivate the dual-purpose cowpeas are basically better off than those who do not.
The improved cowpea varieties were developed and deployed in partnership with the Borno State Agricultural Development Project, Kano State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project, the Institute of Agricultural Research – Zaria and the University of Maiduguri.
Other local development partners are promoting the improved varieties by organizing farmers’ field days, exchange visits, training and farmer-to-farmer diffusion.
Cowpea is a grain legume grown mainly in the savanna regions of the tropics and subtropics in Africa, Asia, and South America. Its grain contains about 25 percent protein, making it extremely valuable to those who cannot afford more expensive animal-derived protein sources such as meat and fish. It is tolerant to drought, fixes atmospheric nitrogen, and improves poor soils.
The FAO, about 7.56 million tons of cowpeas are produced worldwide annually, with sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 70%, or about 5.3 million tons, of global production.
In 2009, most of the world was still on unstable footing due to the lingering effects of the double-whammyâ€“the global financial breakdown and the food price crisisâ€“that hit the previous year. For millions of African farmers and their families, the negative impacts of these crises were still strongly felt. As if these were not enough, the third threat of climate change resulting in shifting weather patterns is making agricultural production much more unpredictable and volatile, making the lives of growers even harder.
However, these crises presented us with terrific opportunities to demonstrate the effectiveness of our research-for-development (R4D) strategy. Working closely with partners and with the support of our investors, we developed viable options to help African farmers mitigate and cope with the effects of these threats.
Below is a summary of our R4D highlights and achievements in sub-Saharan Africa for 2009. Details of these highlights and achievements are presented in the â€œResearch Highlightsâ€ section of this annual report:
To address vitamin A deficiency especially among women and children in Africa, we gave tropical maize a boost of the nutrient by combining it with maize from the temperate zones containing high levels of beta-carotene and pro-vitamin A. The result was maize that is not only more nutritious but is also well-adapted to the tropical conditions of sub-Saharan Africa.
We were also able to produce a fungus-based biocontrol product against aflatoxin contamination in major African food crops. Called aflasafe, the product has been proven to significantly reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize in our field trials in Nigeria. The product has been granted a provisional registration by the Nigerian government, allowing us to further test it in more areas. We are also trying to develop a similar product for application in Burkina Faso and Senegal.
Mid-year, we sent our second shipment of seeds of African crops to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. This comprised of about 5000 seed samples of soybean, maize, bambara nut, cowpea, and African yam bean. Through our Genetic Resources Unit, we are continuing efforts to expand our germplasm collection to help ensure the security and future of Africaâ€™s agrobiodiversity.
We developed new diagnostic tools to help check the spread of crop disease-causing pathogens. Called â€˜DNA Barcodingâ€™, this new initiative could genetically characterize pathogen populations and recognize unique stretches of sequences. The DNA â€˜barcodesâ€™ could then be used as markers to diagnose pathogens and pests affecting African food crops.
In the face of the rapid onslaught of two deadly diseases of bananas and plantains in Africa â€“ Banana Xanthomonas Wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Disease â€“ that is threatening to wipe-out the crops from the continent, we engaged in a number of complementary disease-management research. These include conducting diagnostic assays, regional disease surveillance, developing management tools, and studying host-plant resistance.
We also undertook studies to delve deeper into the dynamics of Musa production in Africa. This included research that looked at relationships between and among pests and diseases, biotic and abiotic stresses, and farmersâ€™ preferences. All of these to establish the underlying causes of the present state of Musa production in Africa, and enable us to plot a more effective course for our R4D work on bananas and plantains in the continent.
Further to our work on developing a biocontrol product against aflatoxin contamination in food crops, we also developed six new aflatoxin-resistant maize inbred lines with our US-based partners. These maize lines, which have been released to farmers, are also well-adapted to the lowlands.
Our work on improved double-purpose cowpea has resulted in significant increases in the incomes of farmers in northern Nigeria. Cowpea growers in that part of the country have seen their farm profits jump by as much as 55 percent from using the improved varieties compared to local ones.
On soybeans, we developed a new variety that is resistant to the deadly Asian rust â€“ a disease that causes as much as 80 percent crop loss in infested fields. Tagged TGx 1835-10E, the new rust-resistant variety is also high-yielding, bringing an average of 1655 kg/ha of grain and 2210 kg/ha of fodder. It also possesses other traits sought after by soybean farmers.
Our project on â€œPromoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno Stateâ€ (PROSAB), which ended it five-year run this year, showcased the effectiveness of our R4D approach. Our post-project socioeconomic analysis have shown that the poverty levels of about 17,000 households, or more than 100,000 participating farmers, have dropped by an average of 14 percent, while food security improved by about 17 percent â€“ due mainly to PROSABâ€™s R4D interventions.
Our Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP) was tapped as one of five technical partners of a global, multi-sector consortium to implement the US$40 million, 5-year Cocoa Livelihoods Program (CLP). The program is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and 14 chocolate industry companies. STCP will lead the CLPâ€™s site selection, develop and validate training approaches for cocoa farm rehabilitation, produce appropriate training materials, establish a community-level distribution system for improved planting materials, conduct market opportunity and product diversification studies, and manage the programâ€™s Performance Coordination Unit.
A study on the impact of agricultural research on productivity and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa that we completed this year has shown that agricultural research has a direct positive impact on poverty, reducing the number of poor people in the region by as much as 2.3 million annually. In view of the long-term research investments and demonstrated successes in the region, our own R4D work is helping uplift the lives of about 500,000 to one million poor people in sub-Saharan Africa annually.
This year, we moved even closer to developing cassava that has dual resistance to two of the cropâ€™s deadliest diseases â€“ Cassava Mosaic Disease and Cassava Brown Streak Disease. We are currently conducting further disease-stress tests and breeding on candidate cultivars that have shown promise. We are also ensuring that traits sought after by farmers â€“ such as cooking taste, texture, and yield â€“ are addressed.
Yam farmers in sub-Saharan Africa have been traditionally beset by high production costs. We developed a novel way of propagating yam that does away with using tubers as seeds, saving farmers as much as 25 to 30 percent in production expenses. The innovative technique involves using vine cuttings grown in inexpensive carbonized rice husks to produce mini-tubers, which are then used as the planting material in the fields. Aside from reducing costs, this new yam propagation technique could also address the need for faster and wider distribution of disease-free and improved varieties to farmers.
For years, cabbage farms in West Africa have been suffering from the damage inflicted by the Diamondback Moth (DBM), affecting farmersâ€™ incomes and market prices of the high-value crop. This year, we developed a biopesticide based on a fungusâ€“ Beauveria bassiana â€“ that effectively controls DBM. Used in integrated pest management, the biopesticide offers a cost-effective and ecologically-friendly alternative to inorganic pesticides, which are not only expensive but also poses health risks to humans and the environment. The B. bassiana-based biopesticide has been tested and proven effective in a number of field tests in the Benin Republic.
We carried out advanced studies in the biological control of the cowpea pod borer, Maruca vitrata. We further evaluated the effectiveness of a previously identified natural enemy of the pod borer, the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae. We also continued host-range studies of the Multi-Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus, another promising biocontrol against Maruca vitrata, which was found through collaborative studies with the World Vegetable Center.
To service more African farmers, we established our Southern Africa Administrative Hub in Zambia to backstop our R4D efforts in that part of the continent. The hub will cater to the agricultural research support needs of Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and, as needed, the DR Congo. With the establishment of our Southern Africa hub, our administrative support system now have three focal points: West Africa (covered by IITA-Nigeria), East Africa (serviced by IITA-Tanzania), and Southern Africa (covered by IITA-Zambia).
Our 2009 audited financial statements reflect the instituteâ€™s sustained financial health and stability, and the prudent management of resources. Our liquidity and reserve levels are above those recommended by the CGIAR, indicating our continued ability to meet short- and long-term obligations. Please see the â€œFinancial Informationâ€ section of this report for details.
The successes recorded by the five-year run of the â€œPromoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno Stateâ€ (PROSAB) project that we coordinated proved the effectiveness of our research-for-development (R4D) approach in tackling not only livelihoods and food security but also social empowerment and gender equality. PROSAB started in 2004 and ended this year.
Farmers in the project area who adopted the technologies and management practices espoused by the project experienced increased food availability and incomes. Considerable progress was also made in addressing the problems of declining soil fertility and Striga infestation.
Our socioeconomic analysis involving about 17,000 households, or more than 100,000 farmers, that participated in the project showed that poverty levels dropped by an average of 14 percent, while food security improved by 17 percent.
Farmers who participated in the project increased their average incomes by an average of 81 percent compared to what they were earning before PROSAB started. They attributed this mainly to the projectâ€™s interventions.
More importantly, the knock-on effect on other non-participating farmers in the region has been tremendous.
PROSAB introduced improved crop varieties, trained farmers on improved agronomic practices and promoted gender equality in agricultural development.
Apart from reducing poverty in households from 63 percent to 49 percent, the project also made significant inroads in enhancing womenâ€™s roles in agricultural activities.
Ruth Dasika Mshelia, a mother of five and a participant of the project, attested, “PROSAB has helped us freely interact with our male counterparts in development projects. We are not ashamed anymore,”
Borno state, where the project was centered, is predominantly Islamic, with social interaction between men and women largely restricted by religious norms.
Farmers, policy makers, nongovernment organizations, and other local partners hailed it as a major success story in northern Nigeria where climatic and cultural factors are major challenges to development.
Some local governments have signified interest in out-scaling PROSABâ€™s approach to other states. It has also been touted as a model that could be adopted in agriculture-based communities in other African countries.
The CA$ 7 million (about US$6.33 million) project was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency. Our implementing partners included the International Livestock Research Institute, Borno State Agricultural Development Program, Community Research for Empowerment and Development, the Institute of Agricultural Research – Zaria, and the University of Maiduguri.
A study on the impact of agricultural research on productivity and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that we completed this year has shown that agricultural research has a direct positive impact on poverty, reducing the number of poor people in the region by as much as 2.3 million annually.
According to the study, in view of the long-term research investments and demonstrated successes in SSA, our own R4D work is helping uplift the lives of about 500,000 to one million poor people in the region per year.
The study, authored by Arega Alene, Impact Assessment Economist, and Ousmane Coulibaly, Agricultural Economist, also estimated that the aggregate rate of return to agricultural research in the region runs as high as 55 percent.
However, the study cautions that the actual impacts are not large enough to offset the poverty-increasing effects of population growth and environmental degradation in the region.
The study, which has been published in the journal Food Policy, further demonstrated that doubling investments in agricultural R&D in SSA from the current US$650 million annually could reduce poverty in the region by two percentage points per year. However, the study adds that this projected drop in poverty would not be realized unless existing extension, credit, and input supply systems become more efficient.
The study also established that agricultural research had contributed significantly to productivity growth in SSA, with the highest payoffs noted in Ghana, Cameroon, Nigeria and Ethiopia. This is attributed to sustained investments in building national research capacity, long-term operations of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), North Face Jacket Sale UKand regional technology spillovers. Work by the CGIAR contributed about 56% of the total poverty reduction impact in the sub-region.
Despite the contributions of agricultural research, the study notes that SSA faces several unique constraints outside the research realm that hinder the realization of potential benefits. It singled out weak extension systems, lack of efficient credit and input supply systems, and poor infrastructure development. The study recommended that concerned entities undertake efforts to improveNorth Face Sale these systems and related infrastructure, and increase investments in agricultural research, to further reduce poverty in SSA.