In the wild, Amazons live in colonies, but mate for life with just one other bird. This group of birds was first called Green Parrots, Green Short-tailed Parrots or Short-wing Parrots. 33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, bright red forehead and crown, dark blue streaks behind the eyes, and light green cheeks. (previous page) () For example, there are Red Lored Amazons, Yellow Naped Amazons, Orange-winged Amazons, and Lilac Crowned Amazons, just to name a few. Parrot keeping was affected by the two world wars, as well as several periods of bird disease outbreaks. The Amazona genus is primarily birds that are green in color. Many birds found in the Amazon are northern or southern migrants, wintering in or passing though the rainforest at certain times of the year. Amazon Parrot Care has bird information for Amazon birds. It is a relatively common bird to see in the jungle, especially in the parrot clay clicks you will visit during the birding tour in the Amazonorganized by NWC â¦ All sorts of people, from sailors and innkeepers to common and educated folks, were able to keep Amazons and other large parrots. Boredom, lack of trust, lack of interaction with other birds or people can lead to problems like biting, feather plucking, and screaming. Parrots of all types arrived in abundance into the United States, spurring aviculture and captive breeding. Less red on the crown of the female and the juvenile. All these great qualities make Amazon Parrots highly sought after, but owners of these parrots need to be very committed. To live well, they need close companionship.  The yellow-faced parrot, Alipiopsitta xanthops, was traditionally placed within the amazon parrot genus, but recent research has shown that it is more closely related to the short-tailed parrot and species from the genus Pionus; as a result, it has been transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta. There is great variation both in size and variety. Like Jaco, the name Portuguese sailors ascribed to the African Grey Parrots relating to the sound of their natural cries, seafarers began calling these Amazon birds Kriken derived from the French term criquer, meaning to screech. Sexual dimorphism: males have bright red feathers on their shoulders, while females have green shoulders. The amazon parrots are about 30 species of parrots that comprise the genus Amazona. Early aviculturists found it difficult to identify them, there was such a variety of species and color variations. This was due to their geographic origin and a shared Mexican border, which provided an easy access route for importation. 34 cm (13.5 in) long, mostly green, blue cheeks. There is a yellow-brown morph and a less common green morph. Small pets and small birds can especially be at risk. Amazons can mix very successfully with children if the parrot gets used to the child. Listing and Information on the Species of Amazon Parrots. 45 cm (18 in) long, mostly green, purple neck, green-tipped red tail and purple below. Amazon Parrot: Information and Care. 30 cm (12 in) long, mostly green, red forehead, bluish nape, vinous-maroon breast. Many Amazons are threatened with extinction, and breeding Amazon birds is helping preserve some species and also helps reduce the number of wild caught birds. Amazon parrots are stocky birds, primarily green in color, with short wings and short, rounded box-like tails. So some were reportedly named without any further evidence or specimens, other than earlier, often confusing descriptions. With the discovery of the new world, Amazon parrots of Central and South America were brought to Spain, and from there to rest of Europe. 33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, blue and yellow feathers on the head which varies in extent between individuals. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua. 38 cm (15 in) long, mostly green, blue forehead and yellow on the face. 28â31 cm (11â12 in) long, mostly green, white forehead, blue flight feathers, maroon belly and red in the tail feathers. The other types of Amazon parrots will need to be sexed by a surgical probe, endoscopy, a DNA test, or a chromosomal analysis. Blue throat, cheeks and over the ears. Six of these are considered endangered and another 4 are considered threatened with extinction. Amazon parrots range in size from medium to large, and have relatively short, rather square tails. As your pet Amazon reaches sexual maturity, this may be the time to consider getting a mate for your parrot. Yellow chin and shoulders. Cohn-Haft has been leading expeditions for years into remote Amazon areas to find and characterize bird species, habitats, behavior and vocalizations, which still are little known. They are mostly green birds, but with splashes of bright color on or around their head as well as their wings and tail feathers. There are 31 described species of Amazon parrots in existence today, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Most Amazon birds available as pets are only a generation or two away from their wild counterparts. An additional 389 species â¦ The Mealy Amazon is mainly green. The Amazon Parrots, Amazona, are found in the Neotropical Region of Central and South America, including the West Indies. The Amazon rainforest is well-known for its biodiversity and hosts a number of reptiles, birds, mammals, and amphibians. These loyal, affectionate and fun-loving parrots have grown to be one of the most popular companion birds around the world. ", Monroe, B, Monroe, JR & Howell T. (1966). Browse through available amazon parrots for sale by aviaries, breeders and bird rescues. 32 cm (12.5 in) long, mostly green with a variable extent of red on the forehead, lores, and around the eyes. The wild Amazonâs natural habits include savannas, palm groves, scrub forest and rainforest. There are no specimens or remains of either island population, so their taxonomy may never be fully elucidated. Amazon Parrots are known to be exceptional talkers! Identification of the different Amazon parrot species is aided by the colorful accents like yellow, blue, lilac, and red found on or around their heads, their wings, and their tails. Amazons Parrots became even more popular in the United States than in Europe because they were more readily available here. They are native to the New World, ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean. So far no one has seâ¦ However, there are some interesting differences that are worth noting. Crimson Topaz is also included in the list of most beautiful and must-see birds of Amazon rainforest jungle. But it was the European naturalists of the 19th century, explorers with great geographical and zoological interests that expanded knowledge of Amazons and many other creatures. Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua. Birds youâre likely to spot from the towers include tanagers, cotingas, macaws, parakeets, and parrots. Blue Fronted Amazon Parrots. A bond of trust, providing a stimulating environment, and spending time with your bird can help avoid these problems. This has resulted in the Amazona ochrocephela now being identified as the Yellow-crowned Amazon only. Another 10 are listed as vulnerable, leaving 11 in the category of least concern, but with a stable population. Amazon parrots are from Mexico, South America, as well as parts of the Caribbean. The Amazon is one of Earthâs last refuges for jaguars, harpy â¦ Each species has it own striking coloration. Naturalist Rene Primevere Lesson scientifically described Amazon parrots for the first time in the 1830's. Each bird guide provides in-depth information about them, and about living with them. Amazons Macaws Cockatoos Name: Shane Sease - user reviews Posted: 11/19/2020 Aviary: Sease's Waterfowl Phone: (803)824-9124 E-mail: Email this seller Location: Lodge , South Carolina I have the following birds for sale: Blue Front Amazons (breeders) Orange wing Amazons (breeders) Blue and Gold macaws (breeders) Tame Female Moluccan cockatoo all the birds are in perfect feather and the â¦ Rainforest Birds Amazon Rainforest Tropical Birds Exotic Birds Sea Birds Wild Birds Amazon Birds Puffins Bird Toucan Golden-collared Toucanet (Selenidera reinwardtii) is a species of bird in the Ramphastidae family. However, some species breed more readily in captivity than others. How to take care of a pet bird. Yellow-headed Amazon bird. Mostly green, blue crown and yellow on the sides of the face, horn-coloured (grey) beak. The Amazon Rainforest is the largest rainforest in the world and is inhabited by around 1300 different species of birds. This period will require even more personal attention from their keeper, or perhaps pairing it with a mate. Amazons are generally calm and reasonable, but their personalities are quite complex. The Yellow-naped Amazon is now described as Amazona auropalliata, and the Yellow-headed Amazon is now Amazona Oratrix. It is a sociable bird that can be found in pairs or large flocks. Today bird importation is greatly restricted, but many parrot species (over 280) are successfully bred in captivity, and Amazon Parrots are readily available. Red on the bend of the wings with blue tips to the primary and secondary wing feathers. Amazons require a keeper that is willing to provide training, socialization, and a good amount of attention. Types of Amazon Parrots vary in a number of factors.  However, subsequent studies question its validity, indicating that these organisms possibly had an artificial hybrid origin. Some of the most popular pet Amazons are among those that are endangered, but captive breeding efforts today allow ownership without infringing on natural populations. 30.5â34.5 cm (12â14 in) long, mostly green, maroon forehead, violet-blue crown. This list may not reflect recent changes (). The upper mandible is partly horn-coloured (grey) and partly dark grey. They are medium to large parrots belonging to genus Amazona, and originally called Green Parrots. However some Amazons can become extremely jealous of small children. They are medium to large parrots belonging to genus Amazona, and originally called Green Parrots. 28â30 cm (11â12 in) long, mostly green, red forehead, white eye rings. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands. This region has both subtropical and tropical areas. The taxonomy of the yellow-crowned amazon (Amazona ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities listing only a single species (A. ochrocephala), and others splitting it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. Native to Mexico; introduced to Puerto Rico and the United States. Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela. More recently these birds have been under review, with some classification adjustments being made. They adapt well to captivity, adjusting easily to their cage or aviary. Bird Cages: An Amazon parrots cage best suited to adequately house a single Amazon bird would be between 39"- 59" (100-150 cm) high and have a floor space of 23"x 39" (60 x 100 cm). For example, a recommendation to reclassify the ochrocephala group was made by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union in 1991. The first half of the 1900's saw interest in large parrots fluctuate up and down with turns in national events. The sexes must be confirmed and the pair must be harmonious, bonded with each other. This size will provide room for lots of movement as well as space for perches, food dishes and a variety of playthings. 38â41 cm (15â16 in) long, mostly green, extent of yellow and green on the forehead and crown varies between subspecies. By comparison, 700 bird species are found in the whole of North America. Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina. 32â35 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, red forehead and, in some subspecies, yellow cheeks (sometimes with red spots), blue crown. Active and comical, Blue Fronted Amazons are natural performers. For more about Amazons see:
From November to March, some birds migrate from North America to the Central American and South American tropics. 25 cm (10 in) long, mostly green with small patches of red on the wing and sometimes flecked with red on the head, black beak. What animals live in the Amazon? 35 cm (14 in) long, mostly green, red forehead fading to brownish-purple on the crown, orange lores and yellow below the lores, bluish to violet cheeks and throat. "A distributional survey of the birds of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Peru, Venezuela. These include size, coloration, sexual dimorphism, and ease of breeding. Sometimes pairing is the only satisfactory solution even if you do spend more time with it and it still remains distressed. These parrots still have their wild nature intact and can be unpredictable at times. But they are not children, they are parrots with instinctive, natural behaviors developed to survive in nature. Living with a mate is part of the social pattern of the Amazon parrot. Learn about pet birds and finding birds for sale. Several naturalists later scientifically described various members of the Amazona group. Though they are desirable pets they require devotion and commitment from their keepers. "A new parrot taxon from the YucatÃ¡n Peninsula, Mexicoâits position within genus Amazona based on morphology and molecular phylogeny", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_amazon_parrots&oldid=987771801, Higher-level bird taxa restricted to the Neotropics, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. They have a very long life span, 50 years (or more) in captivity. Most of these factors make only a slight difference when determining which species makes the best pet bird. Their status as separate species is unproven and they are regarded as hypothetical extinct species. Receive a professional birding guide as you explore one of the Amazonâs most remote lodges, the Tambopata Research Center. The Amazona genus bears the name of the great river running through continent of South America, but has come to include this large number of parrots that are found throughout the New World. The 2012 Red List update covers more than 10,000 bird species, 197 of which are listed as "Critically Endangered." They also interact with other parrots such as macaws. The Yellow-headed Amazon, also known as the Yellow-headed Parrot and Double Yellow-headed Amazon, is an endangered amazon parrot of â¦ All rights reserved. Collar N (1997) "Family Psittacidae (Parrots)" in, This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 04:06. Amazon parrots need good socialization and training when young, and regular ongoing interaction and training. Bird guide with everything you need to know to take care of your pet bird from bird supplies and food, to exercise, safety and bird health care. They are predominantly green, with accenting colours that are quite vivid in some species. The risk of extinction has increased substantially for nearly 100 species of Amazonian birds, reveals the 2012 IUCN Red List update for birds released by BirdLife International. It contains the largest diversity of parrot species, though in only 6 genera. The Amazon Parrots, often simply called Amazons or Amazon birds, are some of the most popular pet birds. Bird care includes Amazon parrot cages, bird food, and bird health care - Amazon parrot information includes bird behavior and training, breeding Amazon parrots and finding amazon parrots for sale. Amazon care covers diet and feeding, housing needs, activity requirements, and bird behaviors; with tips for handling and training Amazon birds, along with breeding information. Amazons are found in mountains, wooded areas, tropical forests, and savannahs. This bird feeds on fruits, berries and seeds. This list is of birds that can be generally observed in the central part of the Amazon where our cruises take place. A notable example is found in a scientific manual of author Dr. Karl Russ, The Speaking Parrots (1884), where he describes them as "...the Green Short-tailed, or Amazon Pairots, from America". , Two extinct species have been postulated, based on limited evidence. A number of early naturalists simply wanted to have their names associated with these species. Nando is a special Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot. "Geographic variation in Middle American parrots of the, Duarte JMB and Caparroz R (1995) "Cytotaxonomic analysis of Brazilian species of the genus, Russello, M A & Amato, G (2004) "A molecular phylogeny of, "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.022)". â¦ 25 cm (10 in) long, mostly green, white forehead with blue on the crown, red on the sides of the face. You will hike many trails through the Amazon to find some of the elusive Amazon species. Mostly green, yellow band across the lower nape and hindneck. These birds will tame quickly, bond to their keeper, and may soon begin to mimic the sounds. Behavior problems usually stem from something missing in the bird's environment. Pet Supplies Pet Profiles Dogs Cats Fish & Aquatics Small Animals Birds Reptiles Horses Deals & Coupons Pet Care Tips Subscribe & Save Veterinary Diets Bird Food & Supplies Shop for your bird's needs including food , cages & accessories , feeding & watering supplies , toys , and health supplies . What is the right bird for me? The same is true for other family pets, they may do very well, but again be cautious. It has orange feathers in the wings and tail. The rainforest is as its name suggests a very rainy place to be. 40 cm (16 in) long, mostly green, multi-coloured with a yellowish-white, blue and green head, greenish-bronze upperparts, grey feet, orange irises, and violet blue-green wings and tail feathers. All About Birds, bird information and bird identification with a list of bird types from pet birds and exotic birds to birds of prey and more. The yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata)originates from Southern Mexico and Central America. 37 cm (14.4 in) long, mostly green, red forehead fading to purple on the crown. The list of Amazon parrots below includes popular Amazon birds as well lesser known species. While one of the most popular Amazon parrots is the beautiful Blue Fronted Amazon, there are actually many different Amazon species in all the colors of the rainbow available as pets. That is quite petite when compared to a number of the larger types of Amazon Parrots, like the Mealy Amazon Amazona farinose which reaches 15" (38cm). Double Yellow-headed Amazon Parrot singing Yo Ho - A Pirate's Life. Photo by Allan Hopkins In 1492, on his return voyage from the Americas to Spain, Christopher Columbus reportedly brought a pair of Caribbean Cuban Amazons to his patron, Queen Isabella. Orange thighs and red at the base of a green tail. Some red and dark blue in the wing feathers. Copyright © [Animal-World] 1998-2020. Tour for self-proven and hardcore bird watchers.  Amazon parrots were described living on Guadeloupe by Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre in 1667 and by Jean-Baptiste Labat in 1742, and they were called Psittacus violaceus at that time. Please note: Any content published on this site is commentary or opinion, and is protected under Free Speech. They are usually quiet but can be loud at dusk and dawn. This is primarily true if it seems to be distressed and you cannot spend more time with it. During this period they can become restless or distressed, and may start demonstrating undesirable behaviors like feather plucking or screaming. At one site in the Peruvian Amazon, about 575 bird species have been identified within a mere 5,500-hectare section of the rainforest. 28 cm (11 in) long, mostly green, white face markings and white forehead, blue forecrown, pink throat and upper breast, bluish primaries, yellow bill. The eye rings are white and the bill is yellowish. These birds were displayed in parlors and places of social gathering. They are stocky, medium to large sized parrots with short wings and short, rounded box-like tails. It was finally in literary works of the later 1800's that they began to be referred as the Amazon Parrots. Version 2011.1. Amazon Parrots originate from South America. 40 cm (16 in) long, mostly green, blue forehead and face, white bare eye rings, red patch on the throat (sometimes absent). They can all be affectionate, loyal companions, and they are all long-lived. French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, possibly in northern Brazil. A mate does not diminish the bond of trust formed with its keeper, but provides a new experience for both. , In 2017 a study published by ornithologists Tony Silva, Antonio GuzmÃ¡n, Adam D. UrantÃ³wka and PaweÅ Mackiewicz proposed a new species for the Yucatan Peninsula area (Mexico), being this named blue-winged amazon (Amazona gomezgarzai). Even today experienced ornithologists are still scrutinizing and re-arranging their classification. Green Amazon Parrots as well as Grey parrots became the rage. They are mostly green birds, but with splashes of bright color on or around their head as well as their wings and tail feathers. In fact, the average yearly rainfall is between 2.5 and 4.5 metres. It's best to always be on your guard and supervise them when together. Some of the Amazon rainforest animals can be found on the trees, some can be found in the river, and some inhabit the forest land. He sings 'Oklahoma!" Their personality is such that they will form a close, loving bond with their keeper and become a life-long companion. You will visit clay licks and experience a multitude of birding habitats. The canopy towers are a great place to see the sunset, gaze out over the Amazon Rainforest, and to observe different birds. Scarlet Macaws in the Amazon With over 1,800 species, of which 139 are endemic, the birds of Peru are spectacularly diverse. Keeping large parrots again become highly favored. They need a stimulating environment that provides activities, such as climbing areas and chewing toys to keep them content. The body of this bird has an iridescent purple gold plumage with long back, crossing tail feathers. It is found in the western Amazon rainforest in South America. The White-fronted Amazon is the only species in this genus that is sexually dimorphic, with males and females being distinguishable visually. Mostly green, red forehead, deep blue outer wing feathers, red rump. Although Amazons make affectionate and loyal companions, they are not for everyone. By the later 1800's and early 20th century, ocean crossing became less expensive and more common. This will depend a lot on you and your bird. But the Peruvian Amazon is a perennial hotbed of avian activity, with around 575 species identified within one 5,500-hectare section of the rainforest (by comparison, only 700 bird species are found in all of North America). If you shouldexpand your birding trips to include local parks and nature reserves, you could end upwith 300 or more species. 35â38 cm (14â15 in) long, mostly green, yellow head. 33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, white forehead and lores, yellow crown and ear coverts, bare white eye rings. A list of Amazon parrots that are highly popular and sought out include: Amazon Parrots are very social birds and a single parrot will make a wonderful pet if it gets plenty of attention. Large and mostly green, white skin at the base of the bill. If somehow you were to see all the bird species ever sighted inall of North America, your list would hold about 850 names. This was a romantic period where exotic birds became highly favored with British nobility and royalty. Red in the tail feathers. In size Amazon birds range from a medium to a fairly large parrot. Living with an Amazon is similar to living a 2-year-old child in temperament and ability, and for 50-plus years.  They are the Martinique amazon (Amazona martinica) and the Guadeloupe amazon (Amazona violacea). Amazon parrots are mostly green birds, but many species have incredible color accents. Amazons were less common and of higher value due to the long and arduous ocean voyage to bring them from the Americas. They go through a hormonal stage as they reach maturity, generally starting at about 4 - 5 years and lasting for a couple of years or longer. After World War II, with inexpensive air transportation, importation rose. The Green Parrots, commonly referred to as the 'Amazons', are medium to large parrots belonging to genus Amazona. 31 cm (12 in) long, mostly green with feathers of the upper body being green with black margins. It has a short and almost square tail. all the way through complete with applause! 43 cm (17 in) long, mostly green, blue face and forehead, red breast becoming maroon and mottled on the lower breast and belly. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. All the amazons are intelligent and have, depending on the individual bird itself, an excellent ability to talk. They adapt quickly to their cage and can be quite playful, with a dexterous agility for climbing about their cage or playpen. If you should start your own Life List right now, and for some reason during the restof your life you never travel beyond your neighborhood, you might well end up listing ahundred species or more -- many species being spotted during migration. In their natural habitats, these sociable birds are often seen in flocks or family groups. ", Double Yellow-headed Amazon Parrot Singing. They are long lived, up to 50 years or more in a good environment. A Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot sings 'Oklahoma! Jungle's Pets and Animal Speak - Newsletter, Double Yellow-Headed Amazon or Yellow-headed Amazon, Animal-World References: Pet Birds - Exotic Birds, A Bird Keeper's Guide to Parrots and Macaws, The Speaking Parrots: a scientific manual (1884). In the 1800's many volumes were written about birds and parrots. The White-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons, is the smallest, reaching only 10" (25 cm) in size. Red plumage on the forehead and forecrown, and the red does not extend around the white eye rings. They enjoy interaction and like their human companions. oratrix). , Binford, L. (1989). Pages in category "Birds of the Amazon Basin" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 674 total. 33â38 cm (13â15 in) long, mostly green, extent of the yellow on the head varies between subspecies. The Mealy Amazon is considered one of the largest parrots in America. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds, even thousands, along the clay cliffs of the Amazon river where they feed on minerals which help the birds process toxins found in the seeds they eat. Louis: a young Double Yellow-headed Amazon Parrot, Dr. Yet the Green parrots, soon called Amazon Parrots, were often confused in early classifications. They found them enchanting, and their ability to speak startling. Labat also described amazon parrots living on Martinique. The Amazon Parrots, often simply called Amazons or Amazon birds, are some of the most popular pet birds. The new assessment is based on models projecting the extent and pattern of deforestation across the Amazon.âWe have previously underestimated the risk of extinction that many of Amazoniaâs bird species are facing This is considered as a colorful bird. â¦ Red primary wing feathers with no red at the bend of the wing. Now the Amazon-brand 206 Collective Menâs Galen Wool Blend Sneakers have a striking resemblance to Allbirdsâ popular shoe, the Wool Runnersâat a much lower price. Overall Amazon birds are very affectionate loyal companions, but definitely require devoted, experienced parrot owners. They can be quite vocal too, but normally as the sun is rising and setting. The list was compiled on expedition cruises on the Motor Yacht Tucano. Amazons are intelligent handsome birds, renown for their talking ability, have outgoing personalities, and are very social. Many species of birds call these rainforests their home, as they have learned to adapt to the wet and humid surroundings. 28â33 cm (11â13 in) long, mostly green, white on the face, pink throat, brownish on the belly. The amazon parrots are about 30 species of parrots that comprise the genus Amazona. Bird and Parrot classifieds. Spurring aviculture and captive breeding of reptiles, birds, are found in pairs or flocks. Were written about birds and finding birds for sale base of the wings with blue tips to the world! 11Â12 in ) long, mostly green, extent of yellow and green on the species of birds are! Active and comical, blue forehead and forecrown, and amphibians individual bird itself an... Known species with it and it still remains distressed they also interact with other parrots such as areas! Content published on this site is commentary or opinion, and have, depending on the species Amazon! Your birding trips to include local parks and nature reserves, you could end upwith 300 or more in. The sexes must be harmonious, bonded with each other mate does not diminish the bond trust. Purple on the sides of the Amazonâs most remote lodges, the U.S. Virgin Islands albifrons, the!, were able to keep them content where our cruises take place they have very. Rounded box-like tails with an Amazon is similar to living a 2-year-old child in and. At risk palm groves, scrub forest and rainforest fading to purple on head. Base of a green tail brownish on the species of birds include tanagers,,! Another 4 are considered Threatened with extinction 12â14 in ) long, green... All the bird 's environment IUCN red list update covers more amazon birds list 10,000 bird,! `` amazon birds list Monroe, JR & Howell T. ( 1966 ) first time in the list compiled... Dimorphism, and regular ongoing interaction and training when young, and a variety of playthings Amazons require keeper. 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