Land clearing for timber exportation is also rampant and hunting puts pressure on native species of various habitats in Ghana’s once-expansive rainforest. Effects deforestation has on local species It involves the clearing of the forest leading to cutting down of trees, to enable them accomplish their operation, of extracting gold. Semantic Scholar extracted view of "The causes of and impact from deforestation on local level sustainable forest management in Ghana : a survey of Dwease and Praaso communities in the Ashanti region" by Peter Dok Tindan Daniel Kofi Abu, the Project Coordinator of Tropenbos International Ghana, a non-governmental forestry organization, has identified deforestation and bush burning as major causes … This is done by selfish people who try and keep all the benefits away from the nation. Government should also review existing laws to ensure that punishments for illegal logging activities are severe enough to discourage people. Forests, which cover 30% of Earth’s surface, are critically important to just about every aspect of life, especially in the face of climate change. Degradation however refers to any activity that affects the quality of the forest. Illegal small scale mining causes a massive amount of deforestation. Deforestation, the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses, is considered to be a contributing factor to global climate change. Learn how your comment data is processed. The resistance to invasion increase with the plant biodiversity. Conclusion 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. Because of reducing soil fertility, an ever increasing area has to be planted in order to grow sufficient food. The protection of the nation’s forest is a collective responsibility of every Ghanaian. According to Nsenkyire (1998), the main causes in Ghana are (i) forest clearance for cocoa and food crop farms and (ii) logging (both legal and illegal). Despite the government's efforts to maintain and protect Ghana's forest reserves, deforestation continues. Illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation, depriving the Ghanaian economy of fibre, legal employment and tax revenues. The Ashanti region has recorded the second highest deforestation rates. Deforestation affects our environment by reducing biodiversity, changing the water cycle, affecting soil erosion and plays a part in the ongoing phenomenon of global. These rural dwellers may not be well informed about the benefits of preserving trees and even if they know, they value the money they get from chain saw operators much more than allowing the tree to stand. A major cause of deforestation is agriculture plantations. However, this wealth of minerals originates many problems such as social, economic and particularly environmental issues. Deforestation has different causes depending on the country. We might be better off solving the underlying cause of illegal logging which may be weak institutions or corruption or both. Virtually all unreserved forest has been converted to farmlands and fallow areas. Deforestation brings many effects either to society or country. companies cut down trees for timber, which is mostly sold to developed countries. Ghana is no exception to the continuous environmental degradation as a result of deforestation fuelled by her rapid These causes are differentiated across the various forest zones in the country, however: in the south, timber exploitation, The Ghanaian government has been making great efforts to increase the nation’s forest cover through plantations. Increasing forest cover? It is common recently to find chain saw operators even in northern Ghana selecting and cutting the few economic trees left in the area. Deforestation is the process of clearance or clearing is the removal of forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation, depriving the Ghanaian economy of fibre, legal employment and tax revenues. Although enhancing species diversity is a goal in many restoration projects, sometimes the goal of restoring ecological function takes priority (del Moral et al. 2. Farrhead and Leach, (1998) estimated the deforestation rate to be a massive 22,000ha per year around the late 90’s. Ghana's protected forest reserves have suffered average annual deforestation rates of 0.7%, 0.5%, 0.4%, and 0.6% for the periods 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2010 and 2010–2015, respectively. One would think that the solution to degradation and deforestation lies with stopping the direct causes of deforestation. Moreover, the diversity of plant species increases carbon of the soil, biomass production, nutrient mineralization and soil organic matter. Also, between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 4.2% to 1.89% per annum. This study seeks to examine the causes and consequences of forest loss and therefore biodiversity loss in Ghana. Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been caused partly by unregulated logging and mining, but mostly by the demands made by the subsistence activities of a poor population. [ii] Cocoa is spreading, and as it does, it threatens new forests. Cocoa plays a critically important role in the local and national economies, providing jobs, improved livelihoods and social Deforestation can also happen gradually over time. SUPPORTING DEFORESTATION-FREE COCOA IN GHANA: IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 COCOA DEFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHALLENGES Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire together produce two-thirds of the world’s cocoa. Outside the Forest Reserves logging has been on the increase mainly due to lack of effective control. Cause Of Deforestation In Ghana 2701 Words11 Pages 2.1.1 Deforestation in Ghana Scientist, economist, environmentalist and many others have deliberated that the prevailing patterns of deforestation are bound to wreak havoc on the earth as the home for mankind and as the source of sustenance (Broader 1989). It can damage the environment by causing many consequences. Rustic agroforests have the higher biodiversity due to the native forest canopy (Perfecto et al. A two-stage regression analysis was conducted, where the causes of deforestation were grouped into first-level, direct causes and second-level (or indirect) causes. Some people argue that trees take too long to grow but I say that it is better to plant today and have it in 50 years than not to plant today and be forced to plant it in 50 years and end up using it in 100 years or more from now. However, deforestation is not a new phenomenon in Ghana. The agents of deforestation are those slash and burn farmers, commercial farmers, ranchers, loggers, firewood collectors, in fra-structure developers and ot hers who are cutting down the forests. We argue that, in Ghana, measures in favour of reduced deforestation and forest degradation, e.g. both prevention and cure. Records show that at the turn of the last century, Ghana had about 8.8 million ha of primary forest. To date, they represent potential causes of deforestation and forest degradation. While clearing for cocoa farming is a leading cause of deforestation, mining is the biggest threat. In Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, cacao production is driving deforestation, but cacao planting (and often rubber) is done by small farmers and is rarely associated with large-scale land conversion. New roads are being built and forests are demolished and destructive logging practices and unsustainable wood collection can eventually lead to a spiral of degradation. Government must step up forest protection by ensuring a multi-sectoral approach. These groups often know of illegal activities in their local forests but tend to condone these activities. Traditional agroforestry system, contain many trees minimizing nutrient leaching and soil erosion and restore key nutrients (Marten, 1986). For example, one direct cause of deforestation is illegal logging. By FAO definitions, an area is considered to be forest if it covers an area greater than 0.5 hectares, and has 10% or more tree crown cover. Land tenure insecurity is one of the underlying causes of deforestation in Africa. The Ashanti region has recorded the second highest deforestation rates. Suggested Solutions  In turn, trees can be defined as having a single stem and the potential to reach a minimum height of 2-5 metres at maturity. Since 2000 the Forestry Commission of Ghana has embarked on a national plantation development programme with a target of 20 000 ha a year (FAO 2010). -Kricher (1997) between deforestation and its hypothesised causes in Ghana. Therefore, impacts on biodiversity can have strong effects on ecosystem services (Cardinale, 2012). However in 1991, logging operations accounted for only 14% of the deforested areas in Ghana (FSD Annual Reports–1962-94). Ghana has one of the highest deforestation rates in Africa and the world, at 2% per annum. Impacts of Deforestation in Ghana Deforestation is a great natural test that fundamentally influences versatility and dissemination of backwoods crosswise over various outskirts. The World Wildlife Fund reports that much of the logging industry that contributes to deforestation is done illegally (about half of it used for firewood). A two-stage regression analysis was conducted, where the causes of deforestation were grouped into first-level, direct causes and second-level (or indirect) causes. I observed that most logs illegally cut in Upper West Region of Ghana were being transported across to Burkina Faso, through the borders. is that in both Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, deforestation linked to cocoa production, the core concern of the CFI, has increased — not decreased — since the launch of the Frameworks. Increasing proportions of deforestation is because of industrial activities and large scale agriculture. Cause Of Deforestation In Ghana 2701 Words | 11 Pages Again, a study carried out to analyse the level of dependence on forest resources and its effects on forest management in Ghana stated that there is a heavily dependence of the local people in the forest fringe communities on their farming practices and forest products for subsistence (Appiah et al. Ghana's protected forest reserves have suffered average annual deforestation rates of 0.7%, 0.5%, 0.4%, and 0.6% for the periods 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2010 and 2010–2015, respectively. Ghana is no exception to the continuous environmental degradation as a result of deforestation fuelled by her rapid It is essentially characterized as loss of woodland spread by and large because of logging of timberlands for other land employments (Gorte and Sheik, 2010). Successful schemes such as joint forest management, participatory forest management and community forest management should be introduced and studied. The causes of deforestation in Ghana are numerous, interrelated, complex and categorised into direct and indirect causes. Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using slash and burn techniques (cutting down trees and burning them). maJor causes of deforesTaTIon In ghana In Ghana, deforestation is the result of a number of economic activities: legal and illicit logging, clearing trees to increase arable land, fuel wood extraction and mining. Deforestation is the permanent effect of the destruction of forests to make space and land for other uses. In a quest to know more, I have visited some mining sites at Nkaseim, Kenyasi, Wuramumuso, Mehame, and Banda, all in the Brong-Ahafo region to be specific and so many areas across the country to witness the devastating nature of galamsey to the community. The recent FAO 2010 report has estimated Ghana’s deforestation at 135 395 ha per year. The article will also briefly discuss the causes of deforestation and present some suggested solutions. Agricultural changes were partly responsible over many years for the forest loss, but recent evidences show that there are other driving forces and factors, which have influenced the face of forests in Ghana. In Ghana, forests provide many products on which the local population subsists. The world 's highest rates of deforestation, a significant cause of global warming, are happening in the key emerging economies of Nigeria, Indonesia and Brazil. This is followed by farming and ranching operations. The terms degradation and deforestation may be familiar to workers and students in forestry, but probably not to all. The area of high forest (off reserve) has drastically reduced and the only remaining portions today are mainly in protected areas. As a result, rural families clear portions of land yearly for crop cultivation. The direct causes of deforestation in Ghana include timber logging (legal and illegal), construction of roads, factories, mining, buil dings, schools, dams and irrigation farming (Farley, 2010). ‘Deforestation refers to the cutting, clearing, and removal of rainforest or related ecosystems into less bio-diverse ecosystems such as pasture, cropland, or plantations.’ These illegal pit workers also do not put in … When land is deforested, plant and animal diversity can be lost. Deforestation is defined as the conversion of forest to non forest land uses. The indirect (underlying) causes are those factors that trigger the actual causes and these include; poverty, ignorance, corrupt practices of governments, security & forestry officials, weak institutions, inappropriate policies, lack of law enforcement, lack of concern by local communities, land tenure issues among others. ADVERTISEMENTS: Deforestation is a consequence of over-exploitation of our natural ecosystems for space, energy and materials. In the second Legal logging could also still be harmful to forest if not done in environmentally friendly ways. 2004). They should also be trained to understand and implement forest management approaches such as reduced impact logging, sustainable forest management, multiple use forest management, participatory forest management, and community forest management among others which have been found to be useful in other countries. The basic reasons for such extensive deforestation are: Related posts: Four Main Causes of deforestation in India During British Rule Here is your free essay on Deforestation 4 easy steps for Controlling Deforestation What are the major Consequences of […] SUPPORTING DEFORESTATION-FREE COCOA IN GHANA: IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 COCOA DEFORESTATION AND CLIMATE CHALLENGES Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire together produce two-thirds of the world’s cocoa. I would like to end with an old Greek proverb which says, “a society grows great when old men plant trees whose shade they know they shall never sit in”. The paper also outlines the causes of continuing deforestation in the studied region from the perspective of the local residents and discusses what role they could play in addressing the problem. Deforestation generally results from inefficient agricultural practices, woodfuel consumption (firewood and charcoal), indiscriminate logging, bushfires and mining activities. Forests are being cut down at much larger scale than ever before, to be used as fuel, to provide products we use in our daily life, or to simply create more space for agriculture to sustain growing human population. Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihood, and forests cover nearly 31% of the planet’s land area. Deforestation, is a major part of the damages galamsey causes to the environment. Ghana has one of the highest deforestation rates in Africa and the world, at 2% per annum. Stretching more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) along a bank of hills in the Ashanti region of southern Ghana, Tano-Offin Forest Reserve has lost more than 16 percent of its old-growth forest since 2001, according to satellite data from the University of Maryland. Rampant deforestation has cleared seven percent of Ghana’s tree cover in just over a decade. management in Ghana. The causes of deforestation are logging, agriculture croplands and pasture expansion, urbanization and more (Ebenezer 2015). London: Routledge Deforestation is directly being caused by activities such as illegal logging, agricultural development, mining and infrastructure projects – but there are reasons behind these activities which are often overlooked. In the tropical forests the soil is too poor to sustain agriculture, hence farmers move on to another area of the forest, leaving behind a patch of deforested land that is degraded of nutrients. For example, as a result of unsustainable logging or climate change. Only a few studies have empirically examined the effects of land tenure on deforestation. Ghana is, indeed, no exception to this state of affairs. Introduct In Sydney, deforestation is predominantly caused by agriculture, more intense and frequent fires and mining and infrastructure projects. Protecting life on land is a much broader concept than one might think. Either way, it’s a lose-lose situation for all who are involved. [i] Cocoa represented 8% of deforestation embodied in EU27 net imports of crop products, 1990-2008. The African countries with the highest rates of deforestation are by far Nigeria and Tanzania. From some more recent trends, Mongabay.com reported that, between 1990 and 2000, the average annual deforestation rate was 1.82%. between deforestation and its hypothesised causes in Ghana. With the advent of climate change for example, foresters must be equipped with necessary skills and technologies to be able to adapt to the anticipated changes. In my opinion, halting forest loss should rather tackle both the direct causes and indirect causes, i.e. The report indicated that Africa has the second highest rate of deforestation worldwide (with 3.4 million hectares of forest loss annually).The situation is not any different in Ghana where forest has been under pressure from human activities over the last century. Other causes of deforestation are shifting cultivation, bush fires, harvesting of fuel wood, human settlements and overgrazing. Mining (galamsey) could also cause more damaging deforestation than bad farming practices in certain parts of the country, Ghana. At the beginning of the last century, about one-third (i.e 8.2 million hectares) of the area was covered by high forest while the remaining two-third (15.7 million hectares) was savanna woodland (Owusu et. In fact it … factors. For plant species that take a long time to regrow deforestation is even more devastating, since they take so much longer to regenerate. Commercial logging. For example, bush fires may cause degradation but may not necessarily result in deforestation. The causes of deforestation are numerous, interrelated and complex in nature. On a 100 year scale (1900 to 2000), the nation lost over 80% of the closed forest (a reduction from 8.8 million ha to 1.5 million ha). Between 1990 and 2000, Ghana lost an average of 135,000 hectares of forest per year; amounting to an average annual deforestation rate of -2% (FAO, 2007). However, these resources are depleting due to a variety of factors including agricultural expansion and over-exploitation of forest resources. However, even these are no longer immune to the advance of deforestation, with many hit hard by a surge of forest loss that began in April. Thanks to the GIORNI initiative support, Myanmar will submit the concept note to the GCF, while Ghana has already submitted the final proposal, which is currently being examined by the GCF Secretariat. This article seeks to highlight the state of Ghana’s forest resource, considering trends over the past 100 years. Deforestation generally results from inefficient agricultural practices, woodfuel consumption (firewood and charcoal), indiscriminate logging, bushfires and mining activities. Hence every citizen should be a guardian of the remaining trees and be inspired and encouraged to plant trees. FAO 2006 and 2010 reports 1. Total land area of Ghana is about 23.85 million hectares. I agree with this only to some extent. Despite the government's efforts to maintain and protect Ghana's forest reserves, deforestation continues. Afforestation on the other hand is to plant trees on land devoid of forest or land that was deforested in the distant past. Causes of deforestation are the forces that motivate the agents to clear the forests. Training border officials in the identification of illegal logs is required. maJor causes of deforesTaTIon In ghana In Ghana, deforestation is the result of a number of economic activities: legal and illicit logging, clearing trees to increase arable land, fuel wood extraction and mining. Deforestation in Ghana In Ghana, the reason behind the cutting down of trees is usually for charcoal, pasture for livestock, farms, urban or industrial purposes. The pressures on Ghana’s forests have been recognized for many years with "alarming deforestation" noted as early as 1908. Cocoa plays a critically important role in the local and national economies, providing jobs, improved livelihoods and social It is taking a toll on the Earth’s environment and population. 3. Deforestation is one of the leading human causes of desertification. This is done by selfish people who try and keep all the benefits away from the nation. Initiatives such as ‘Tree Aid’ provide an example of how such aspirations can be realised. A VI is calculated as a result of the combination of many spectral values that are added (Campbell 2002).The use of VIs as an indicator of forest structure may be an important tool for landscape planning, and for decision on conservation and restoration strategies (Freitas et al. Trees: Over protected or rejected resources? Although the leading threat is unclear, numerous factors contribute to environmental damage in Ghana. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Tanzania, Namibia agree to enhance cooperation in deep sea fishing, Nigeria announces plan to lift over 5 mln farmers out of extreme poverty, UN launches international hub on behavioral insights to counter terrorism. The majority of deforestation caused by unsustainable charcoal production takes place in Africa. Shifting Cultivation: Shifting cultivation or Jhum is often blamed for destruction of forests. The need for wood as a heat source is also a factor in deforestation. The FAO 2010 report revealed an alarming rate of deforestation with a global loss of around 13 million hectares of forest each year in the last decade (2000 to 2010). Forest Degradation/Deforestation in Ghana. This implies that from 1900 to 1950, the nation lost 50% of its primary forest cover and also lost 60% of it between 1950 and 1999. By 1950, the area had been reduced to 4.2 million ha and further to about 1.5 million ha by 1999 (Owusu et. This is an extremely important initiative because, in Ghana, approximately 15 per cent of deforestation is being caused by cocoa farming, as it’s our main export, while almost 800,000 farming families are involved with the cocoa trade. Now, new research shows that cocoa is driving ongoing deforestation in other regions of the world, from Asia to the Amazon. The only way to regain lost forest is by reforestation or afforestation. Between 1990 and 2000, Ghana lost an average of 135,000 hectares of forest per year; amounting to an average annual deforestation rate of -2% (FAO, 2007). Conversion of forest lands for industrial activities or infrastructural development is another cause of forest loss. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation, the “human-driven and natural loss of trees,” affects wildlife and ecosystems, as well as weather patterns and the water cycle. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. and 2005, for example, Ghana lost about 1,931,000 hectares of forest, equivalent to 26 percent of total tree cover (Amisah et al, 2009). What’s behind Washington’s frequent troop withdrawal orders? The rate of forest loss in the country is so extensive and rapid and so, it is therefore a challenge to get the exact figures for the rate of deforestation (Benhin & Barbier 2001). Poor families who cannot afford alternative energy sources for cooking cannot be stopped from harvesting fuelwood since this will lead to hunger. al., 1999). 2005). In the first stage, four first-level causes of deforestation were regressed on various second-level variables. The economic benefits from tree crops drive their expansion but not their intensification thereby causing more forest clearing especially in areas with weak enforcement of forest protection laws [1] . In addition, just like many crime related issues, Forestry officials need the support of other state security agencies to deal with these illegal activities. There are both direct and indirect causes. Illegal small scale mining causes a massive amount of deforestation. 2007). Legal logging could also still be harmful to forest if not done in environmentally friendly ways. Deforestation as well as hunting and trading wildlife are counted among the most fatal impacts on the environment. The aim of this literature review was to scrutinize and summarize only the environmental impact of ASM activities on the rainforest ecosystem in the Congo Basin. The harvesting of timber is the most important single factor contributing to deforestation in Ghana. However, how land tenure arrangements influence deforestation in Ghana's high forest zone is not well understood. Copyright © 2020 IPL.org All rights reserved. Workshop for media personnel on forestry and wildlife reporting Around the size of 36 football fields is being cut down in this minute. An alternative definition is that it is possible to climb a tree at maturity, in comparison to shrubs which cannot be climbed. Worldwide, the study cited industrial logging, agricultural expansion, fire, and mining/resource extraction as the primary causes of IFL area reduction. Deforestation, bush burning destroying forest reserves - Tropebos identifies By Jesse Owusu Ampah Accra, Nov. 7, GNA – Mr Daniel Kofi Abu, Project Coordinator of Tropenbos International Ghana, a non-governmental forestry organization, has identified deforestation and bush burning as major causes of forest depletion in the country. In the second Although the leading threat is unclear, numerous factors contribute to environmental damage in Ghana. If the events of 1981-83 for instance are anything to go by, Ghana would spend its last penny to avert the threat posed by desertification. Air pollution is the source of acid rain, which weakens and damages trees and poisons the soil in the forests. Deforestations impact on Earth is exceptionally greater than what people perceive it to be. Student wins landmark court case against IPS. Causes of deforestation Local people are those who help these illegal people to locate such trees in order to make their own gains at the expense of the whole of the nation. Global Forest Watch revealed that forest loss rates shot up dramatically in 2018, with increases of 60 percent in Ghana … Deforestation can lead to many environmental problems, aside from the obvious loss of trees. Various vegetation indices (VIs) have developed to measure vegetative vigour and biomass with most popular ones using red and near infrared wavelengths to emphasize the difference between the strong absorption of red electromagnetic radiation the scatter of near infrared radiation (Lu et al. Deforestation, as part of the initial step in mining, has a negative effect on dependent species. It is cleared by chainsaws, bulldozers and unsustainable logging for its timber value as well as fires and degradation due to climate change. Fairhead J, Leach M (1998) Reframing Deforestation: Global Analysis and Local Realities – This means that if a land previously occupied by forest is cleared for agriculture or a building project, then deforestation would have occurred. Examples include forest clearance for mining, industrial development, building of stadia, schools and other large infrastructure projects. An increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate. We received a lot of questions related to the report. In developed countries, the majority of people do not directly depend on the forest for energy to cook, hence it is easier to conserve forests. This deforested area is more than half the total area of Ghana. What exactly is deforestation and why does the economy have a need for it, even though it has an adverse effect worldwide? Several areas of t… Ranching and large-scale agriculture leads to deforestation because raising cattle and crops has resulted in the clearing of forests to free up. Similarly, we can only stop deforestation triggered by poverty when we have been able to tackle and deal with the poverty problems. Clearance of forest for agriculture is the leading cause of deforestation not only in Ghana but in the whole of Africa (FAO 2003). It also makes recommendations for an optimal strategy for the sustainable use of the forest and therefore the conservation of biodiversity. News Ghana is not responsible for the reportage or opinions of contributors published on the website. Trying to stop illegal logging is a major cause of forest loss harvesting fuelwood since this will lead to.! Been on the environment conservation of biodiversity harmful to forest if not done in environmentally friendly ways swept because... 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They represent potential causes of desertification if we are merely trying to fight deforestation, mining is the utilization wood..., which weakens and damages trees and burning them ) – and it is increasing observed that most illegally... Only stop deforestation triggered by poverty when we have been able to tackle and deal with the deforestation. Poverty is one of the planet ’ s environment and extinction of species … factors Ghana were transported... News Ghana is, indeed, no exception to the Amazon and over-exploitation of forest loss should rather tackle the! 1.82 % as a result, rural families clear portions of land on. ( FSD Annual Reports–1962-94 ) done by selfish people who try and all...