Bacterial Wilt is primarily a disease of the Cucurbits, particularly cucumbers and melons, though it can also attack the Solanum crops (tomato, pepper, potato, eggplant) and corn. Cucumbers are also susceptible to bacterial wilt. Copper fungicide can control symptoms if it’s applied as soon as symptoms of bacterial fruit blotch are detected. Watermelon should be planted in full sun and heavy feeders. However other soil-borne vascular pathogens can also cause this symptom. Downy Mildew – Downy mildew is notable for the angular leaf spots it creates as it works its way through watermelon leaves. This succulent tropical fruit originated in Southern Africa, but was cultivated in North Africa by the ancient Egyptians 4,000 years ago (it is depicted in hieroglyphs). Fusarium wilt of watermelon is the most widespread and destructive disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States and other areas of the world. This factsheet was prepared by the NCSU Vegetable Pathology Lab in 2015. The fungus invades the vascular tissue through the root system, which can cause wilting of the whole plant. It is very common in moist sandy soils and humid environments, such as the conditions of the coastal south of the US. The fungus colonizes the vasculature in the root and crown, and cutting open the crown can show brown streaking within the xylem (Figure 2). Bacterial Wilt. For the latest fungicide recommendations for Fusarium wilt of watermelon see the Southeastern US Vegetable Crop Handbook. The causal fungus is named Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis (“special form”) niveum , which is commonly abbreviated as FON. bacterial wilt is to prevent large numbers of beetles from feeding on small plants. Use yellow sticky traps in order to minimize the damage. Watermelon, however, is resistant to this disease and certain Regularly examine for cucumber beetles. This disease is severe on cucumber and melon, but is less damaging to squash and watermelon. Watermelon is immune and certain varieties of cucumber and squash show varying degrees of resistance to this disease. To reduce the spread of bacterial wilt, treat for the striped or spotted cucumber beetles. Keeping Cucumber Beetles under control can help reduce problems with this disease. Adult cucumber beetles harbor bacterial wilt organism (Pseudomonas lachrymans) in winter and transmit it during the growing season. Of course you should remove infected plants immediately (and wash your hands with soap and water afterwards). Fusarium wilt of watermelon causes plants to wilt, and it may begin in one or more vines. The bacteria are carried from plant to plant by striped or spotted cucumber beetles. Bacterial Wilt. Cut stem, squeeze sap from cut ends, put 2 pieces together, then slowly pull them apart while looking for characteristic thin strands of sticky bacterial material. Bacterial colonies recovered from inoculated plants were identical to those recovered from field infected plants. Dr. Lina Quesada, NC State Vegetable Pathology Lab. The watermelon has a thick smooth outer rind and a fleshy sweet juicy interior with a high water content (it may be up to 95% water). Watermelon Farming. Rotate crops away from watermelon for 5-10 years if disease is found in the field. Bacterial wilt also causes infected plants to rapidly wilt and collapse (Figure 9). If bacteria are present strands will adhere to the skin and may stretch up to 1/4 inch long. Pseudomonas, Erwinia species. The fresh flavor and water content make it perfect for experimenting in the summer heat. (2) R. X. Latin. The vascular wilt disease caused by the bacterium . Figure 1. When one of these bacteria infects a plant, it spreads by its vessels from the point of contamination to the main stem, then in all the plants. The watermelon is best eaten fresh all by itself, however it can also be used in, salads, drinks, soup, sorbets, and Granita. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of intercropping with aerobic rice on Fusarium wilt in watermelon. This disease is caused by the bacterium Erwinia tracheifila. Lamb’s quarter, also known as Chenopodium album, is a weed, but we would call it a beneficial weed at this point. Plant resistant varieties of watermelon if the field has a history of Fusarium wilt. Bacterial Wilt is primarily a disease of the Cucurbits, particularly cucumbers and melons, though it can also attack the Solanum crops (tomato, pepper, potato, eggplant) and corn. Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits This vascular wilt disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila affects only certain members of the cucumber family including cucumber, squash, muskmelon, pumpkin, and gourd. Bacterial Wilt MWVD also is confused with bacterial wilt, which is caused by Erwinia tracheiphila, a pathogenic bacterium spread by striped and spotted cucumber beetles. A sticky sap will ooze from … Figure 3. Wilting of the aboveground tissue. The fungus can create survival spores that will live in the soil for many years (5-10). Wilt progresses to individual runners of a plant. commitment to diversity. This is the bacterial ooze that clogs the plant. The disease is of minor concern on the foliage, but severely affects fruit and renders them unmarketable. Fungicide labels are legal documents, always read and follow fungicide labels. It is an excellent desert fruit and their juices contain 92% water along with proteins, minerals and carbohydrates. Pumpkins and squash are much less susceptible to bacterial wilt than cantaloupe or cucumbers. Fruit produced on a wilting plant usually is not marketable. Example first frost date on November 01. From there it made its way around the Mediterranean and to India and Europe. Leave this to dry for a few minutes, then put your finger on it and slowly remove. It is commonly transmitted by Cucumber Beetles (they transport the bacteria and create wounds for it to enter the plant). Few fungicides are available for Fusarium wilt control, but a soil application at transplant with prothioconazole (Proline 480 SC) can reduce disease in the field. However, bacterial wilt occurs on muskmelon and cucumber, but does not affect watermelon. It is carried by spotted and striped cucumber beetles. Life Cycle of Bacterial Wilt These bacteria cannot live in a dry atmosphere. Some squash varieties are less vulnerable than others (Table Queen Acorn, Butternut, Buttercup). Verticillium wilt of watermelon, caused by Verticillium dahliae has similar symptoms to Fusarium wilt of watermelon. The causal agent must be isolated from the infected tissue to discern which pathogen is causing the disease. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. Copyright © 2019 Green Living Solution, Inc. Smart Gardener® is a registered trademark of Green Living Solution, Inc. All rights reserved. Grown Areas In India:- Watermelon diseases like Anthracnose , Downy Mildew , Gummy Stem Blight , Bacterial Wilt and Powdery are main in watermelon farming. Photos provided by Tom Isakeit, Department of Plant Pathology, Texas A&M University. Read our that each was susceptible to the pathogen when the plants were at the 1-leaf stage, but plants inoculated at the 10-leaf stage exhibited no bacterial wilt symptoms, although isolations of Once inside the plant the bacteria multiply and inhibit the transportation of water and nutrients. Bacterial wilt Watermelon is susceptible to Fusarium wilt in successively mono-cropped soil. 89(suppl. Infected fruits with no symptoms can have post-harvest decay during transit. niveum (F. oxysporum). Use good sanitation practices (removal of infected plant tissue away from the field site, using clean equipment, etc.). Strands do not always form, so repeat several times until seen. One way to determine if bacterial wilt has infected a plant is to cut the stem and squeeze both cut ends. Bacterial wilt of cucurbits also exhibits wilting that begins in only a few leaves. affects members of the cucurbit family, includ-ing cucumber, squash, muskmelon, pumpkin, and gourd. When the stem is cut, a white bacterial ooze will often come out of the stem, which does not happen in Fusarium wilt. It was introduced in the Americas in the early 1600s. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. ):S10, 1999. Fusarium oxysporum is a soilborne fungus not transported on air currents. Requirements Watermelon is a warm-season crop, requiring lots of sun and good drainage to develop optimally and growing best at temperatures between 18 and 28°C (65–82°F). Verticillium wilt of watermelon is not common in North Carolina. Erwinia tracheiphila . Fusarium wilt of watermelon is a specific disease that can’t be transmitted to other plants, including cantaloupe, cucumbers, or others in the same plant family. Bacterial wilt causes watermelon to wilt and die immediately when fruit production begins. Bacterial wilt of cucurbits also exhibits wilting that begins in only a few leaves. Verticillium wilt of watermelon is not common in North Carolina. It pairs well with arugula and goat cheese for a crunchy summer salad. Because watermelon is not susceptible to bacterial wilt, insecticides should only be applied when an average of 5 or more beetles are feeding on each plant (Table 2). Watermelon, however, is extremely resistant to bacterial wilt. Plants may wilt at any growth stage, but wilting is often most severe during periods of rapid growth. A watermelon field with 100% loss in yield due to Phytophthora fruit rot is to the left. Lamb’s quarter, when allowed to grow alongside watermelon, improves its vigor and amount of minerals in watermelon. Tricia shows you how to build a variety of quick and easy vegetable trellises. N.C. Fusarium wilt is a patchy disease and healthy plants can be found in between diseased plants. On the right, is a research trial with plants showing wilting symptoms due to Phytopthora root and crown rot. Image: Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. All leaves are wilted or necrotic. Infected watermelon vines stay behind and remain green for a short period, then turn yellow and progressively desiccate until wilted plant is completely brown. Larvae injure plants by feeding on roots and tunneling through stems. The tested soil was classified as a loam soil, previously planted with watermelon and collected from Hexian county, Anhui province, China. Figure 4. Symptoms of Fusarium wilt are similar on all cucurbits and are dependent on several factors First Frost Date (FFD) refers to the approximate date of the first killing frost of winter. Hot and dry summer temperatures can stress the plant and cause the wilting symptoms that are typical for the disease. Fusarium wilt is a patchy disease and will cause disease in plants that appear to be randomly scattered around the field (Figure 3). Watermelons do not get infected with bacterial wilt or squash vine borer. It is commonly transmitted by Cucumber Beetles (they transport the bacteria and create wounds for it to enter the plant). The management of bacterial wilt starts with the control of cucumber beetles. Removing potentially infected crop debris and rotating crops will help to reduce the source of infection. 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